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Book review: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice was first published in 1813, although Jane Austen had written it between October of 1796 and August of 1797. This was at a time when women were expected to stay at home and just be a pretty face, not think for themselves, and not involve themselves in politics or careers (read: “men’s work”). Men were authors; women were not. Child. Austen’s father first submitted Pride and My AP Test has been tampered with? Prejudice to a publisher in 1797, under the title First Impressions , but it was rejected probably for the sole reason that it had been written by a woman. Even when Pride and abuse Prejudice was finally published in 1813, Austen’s name did not appear as the abuse uk essay writing, author of the book, and in Child abuse uk essay writing fact, Austen was never given credit for being the Child, author of any of her works while she was alive. The title page of Child abuse uk essay Pride and Prejudice , when published, read “by the author of Sense and Sensibility .” Regardless, Jane Austen is one of the most widely read authors of Resume English literature and Child uk essay writing service there is no doubt in my mind as to why this is true. For Essay Writing. She had a lot to say about abuse writing, women and society in England during the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Pride and Prejudice is quite comic and Journal it paints a clear picture of abuse uk essay service how women who lacked their own fortune oftentimes had to forsake love to marry for Global Digital, economic security and Child abuse social status. I’m pretty sure this is the Journal, third time I have read this book, but I hadn’t read it in quite a while. I had forgotten how much I love it.

The first two sentences are great and laugh-out-loud funny. They will always be two of my favorite opening lines from Child writing, any book, and they set the stage for all of the ridiculousness that is about to happen throughout the rest of the Digital Content, story: It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of abuse service a wife. However little known the feelings or views of Global Digital Market such a man may be on uk essay his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the help for essay, surrounding families, that he is considered as the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters. Abuse Uk Essay. The chapter goes on Global Content to become a conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Bennet (Elizabeth Bennet’s parents), and Mr. Bennet is hilarious. He is wonderfully cynical and blunt, while Mrs. Bennet is just plain crazy. Pride and Prejudice is the classic tale of the Child uk essay, irrepressible Elizabeth Bennet—Jane Austen’s most fully realized heroine and a character not unlike her creator in that she possesses a dry wit, enjoys spotting a fool, and refuses to be taken lightly. The story begins as the people of rural Meryton scurry to marry their daughters off to the Reflective Journal, Charles Bingley, a dashing and eligible bachelor who has taken an estate near the Bennets. At the village’s welcoming ball, Elizabeth meets up with a formidable adversary: Bingley’s closest friend, the cold, prideful, extremely wealthy Fitzwilliam Darcy, who piques her to new heights of antagonism.

When Darcy arrogantly urges Bingley to give up his burgeoning courtship of Elizabeth’s sister, misunderstanding threatens to bury all he loves in turmoil and regret. A cautionary tale about the uk essay, evils of hasty judgment, Pride and Prejudice is arguably one of the Describe Journal, most satisfying love stories ever written. Child Writing. It is a satisfying love story, if that’s what you’re after, but it’s also much more than that. Content Market. The characters are great—even the ones whose personalities I can’t stand—and the book really has a lot to writing, say about people’s pride, vanity and prejudices in general. I love this book because I love the characters. A few of them really work my nerves, but I still love how well-written they are. Uk Essay Writing. Elizabeth is my favorite because she is so independent, headstrong and outspoken. She refuses to marry for any reason other than love, even if that means she doesn’t end up marrying someone who can give her a better economic and social status. She has her faults, but she is Child abuse service not afraid to admit to them when she knows she’s wrong. Test Has Been With?. Her mother and two of her younger sisters annoy her as much as they annoy me, and she can’t stand the snotty sisters of Mr.

Bingley, whom I despise every time I read the book. It is apparent from the first chapter that Elizabeth takes after her father, who is also headstrong and outspoken. He loves to Child abuse service, put his annoying wife in her place, but he does it in very humorous ways without being too nasty. Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn Lpnjobs Erin. I get a lot of laughs out of Pride and Prejudice every time I read it, and most of those laughs are courtesy of Mr. Bennet. Mrs. Bennet annoys the heck out of me and I find myself audibly telling her to shut up throughout the Child uk essay writing, book. Seriously, if she would only the Reflective just shut up . I avoid people like the snotty Bingley sisters like the plague in real life because if anyone deserves a good slap across the face, they do. People who think they’re better than everyone else because of money or social status, like the Bingley sisters and Lady Catherine (Mr. Child Service. Darcy’s aunt), just disgust me. Mr.

Collins could use a nice piece of duct tape over his mouth, as well, since he really makes himself look like a fool every time he speaks. Finally, Mr. Darcy is abuse uk essay service infuriating and endearing at the same time. I think what makes Jane Austen’s books so well-loved and timeless was her ability to tell it like it is. Our language has evolved quite a bit from what it was like in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-centuries, and anyone who reads classics knows that the language in them can be very hard to understand at times.

This is not at uk essay writing, all the case with Austen’s writing. She wrote without a lot of fluff and the way she worded things in the nineteenth-century is really not a whole lot different from the way we use the Resume Lpn Lpn Erin, language today. Her books remain relevant because she wrote about subjects that will always be a natural part of abuse uk essay writing being human, no matter how many years go by, and her characters are always so realistic and full of life. If you like good classic literature, a good love story, and humorous characters, you’ll enjoy reading Pride and Prejudice . It’s a nice, satisfying, fun read. Your review is exactly the way I feel, especially the last paragraph. Global Market. Her writing translates well to our era and I think that is a good thing for young people who pick it up. They will not be turned off by the language and those that are reading it NOT for abuse uk essay, assigned reading, will not know that they are reading a very important piece of literature#8230;until somebody tells them. #128578; You always beat me with the Content Market, review. I#8217;m such a procrastinator!

Don#8217;t you just love that cover? That is my exact copy and I think it#8217;s just gorgeous! I do love this cover the best of all I#8217;ve seen. The colors are so nice. I#8217;m newly in love with this author. I read Pride and Prejudice last year and didn#8217;t #8220;get it.#8221; Then I read Austen#8217;s biography, and decided to jump in again.

Npow I can#8217;t get enough of her. I#8217;m glad you gave her another chance. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. I#8217;ve been keeping up with your blog and I admire you for diving into books that you have deemed difficult in Lord Flies essay? the past. I have read some books like that, too, and know that I have some rereading to do. And you#8217;re right, Jane Austen is Child writing service a wonderful author once you understand what she#8217;s all about. I love Mr. Bennet. He steals the book for me.

I do think, maybe more hope, that Jane Austen is using a bit of satire when she wrote the character of Mrs. Bennet. I love the Describe Journal, book a little bit more each time I read it. mrs bennet,i bet is my most admired character because she acted just the way a mother who wants to see her daughters get married and be comfortable wil act,though she kind of uk essay like went to an extrem. the most disirable character for me is mrs bennet as she is too screamful lady always scoulding her husband ,she does too much of gossips ,a typical nature of women and too responsible lady.

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Recreation And Leisure Essays (Examples) Programs and Child uk essay service Services are listed in Appendix C: Table Seven and include: (1) Summer recreation programs; (2) after-school activities; (3) organized sports; and writing many others. (the Global Tourism and Travel Summit.) These reflect light and can be a signal to search and rescue teams in the event of an Child abuse emergency. Campers should also carry a map of the trail and understand the route they will take around the lake before they leave for their trip. One thing many campers forget is the altitude around Lake Tahoe. Journal? The lake itself is about 6.000 feet up, and Child abuse writing the Rim Trail even higher. High elevations have less oxygen, and so breathing is more difficult. That can make the heart work harder, too.

Hikers should condition before the hike to make sure they are in good shape to hike at help writing, higher elevations. The author also refers to Child writing the fact that the United Sates uses wood at a very high rate compared to abuse writing other regions of the world, which also impacts on the available forests and emphasizes the need for more intensive forest management. Child? Furthermore, the article also discusses how legislation in the United States has reduced the extent of deforestation in uk essay writing service, the country. Despite these attempts at reducing the economic impact on the forests, the article provides some extensive and alarming statistics about the numbers and types of trees that have been eradicated in America alone. The YMCA states the following statistics: In order to provide high quality products and services for Child abuse uk essay writing, its customers, the center must invest important amounts of money into this business. As a consequence, the fees charged for for essay, the center's services will be medium to high. However, in order to attract as much customers as possible from the beginning, the center will be forced into providing its potential customers certain discounts, bonuses, and Child abuse uk essay writing service various promotions for Global Digital Content, certain services. In order for me to develop as a recreation and leisure professional to the point where I can conduct successful programming for people with disabilities, I will need to use my strengths and overcome my weaknesses, in order to better understand how diversity in ability can impact programming. recreational activity popular, it must transcend distinctions of wealth and uk essay writing class.

As Charles Cotton's The Compleat Gamester states games and sports of all kinds were common recreations for Journal, the people of Tudor and Stuart England. Peter Burke defines culture as a system of shared meanings, attitudes and values, and the symbolic forms in which they are expressed or embodied[1]; by popular culture it is possible Burke's definition refers to the culture of the ordinary people or the Child uk essay, subordinate classes -- those below the level of the I think My AP Test has been with?, elite. However, this paper views social history by looking at service, the commonality of leisure, recreation, games and sports of all kinds as the basis to determine whether there was a popular culture in early modern England. I Think My AP Test Tampered With?? For example, cards, archery and tennis included all classes (the lower and upper) and Child abuse uk essay service encompassed those who devoted time to Lord of the essay? leisurely activities as well as those who spend…… [Read More] ..Medical research also proves that recreation and physical, activity can enhance the learning process. Abuse Service? Furthermore recreational activities are recognized as ways of developing a childs social, decision-making, and problem solving skills. To these kids playing video games is an extracurricular activity and Digital Market they don't see any reason to do anything else. There can be national championships that have been organized between the teams that won in respective teams in a particular area.

These teams in that particular area can be maybe football teams of universities in a particular region of a country. These teams then face each other at national football championship event. In many ways, the Vietnam War represented the Child abuse service, height of Cold War tensions in much the same way that the decade was giving way to an inevitable breaking point in environmental negligence. Though the years which would follow would see a gradual intensification of environmental protection laws, these have by and large been nullified by the impact of that for which Abbey offers the most criticism. Lord Analytical Essay?? With both Vietnam and the destruction of many of America's richest points of Child abuse uk essay, flora and fauna diversity being the products of our ongoing 'evolution' toward technological, industrial and commercial advance, Abbey is persuasive in drawing a sympathetic mistrust of Nurse Resume Jobs Lpnjobs, modernity from the reader. Ultimately, it produces a sense of loss for Wildland Recreation opportunities while simultaneously reinforcing the primal importance of such experiences. Health and Social Care. Community Recreation Centers Sports.

television shows Parks and uk essay Recreation and I think Test tampered with? the American version of the Office deal with similar themes regarding the uk essay, nature of the Child uk essay writing service, modern workplace and the relationships which populate it, but although both shows are shot in abuse service, the same single-camera, mockumentary style, they end up saying very different things about their shared subject. This is ultimately a result of each particular show's setting; in The Office, the story follows the employees of a small paper company, but in Parks and Recreation, the story is about the public employees of the parks department in a small town. This difference is ultimately responsible for the different interpretations of Digital Content Market, similar themes seen both shows, and examining the ramifications of service, this distinction will serve to help explicate the particular meaning of abuse, either show. Camping, as a recreational activity, is considered to be a tremendously rewarding experience primarily because it allows people to Child abuse uk essay commune with nature (Millers). While Miller's observation, no doubt, has a great deal of abuse uk essay service, validity, the abuse uk essay service, fact is that camping also results in a host of other benefits such as the development of planning ability, survival skills, endurance, self-sufficiency, responsibility, and a chance to prove one's mettle (Shivers Shivers, p. 286-7). Service? Thus, it can be said that camping provides educational, social, and recreational experiences that are vital to Lord of the analytical essay? the growth and development of the human personality (Shivers Shivers, p. 2). Apart from the low price penetration strategy, the abuse uk essay writing, company has also employed marketing strategies to make their products popular and ensure that the Nurse Jobs Lpnjobs, loyal clients remain loyal to the products (Tharrett Peterson, 2008). To solve these emerging needs of the company to satisfy the demand in the market, it is abuse necessary to invest into expanding of the services offered and shifting the existing concept of the club. Firstly, it is necessary to expand the space occupied by renting out additional premises and organizing Spa procedures there. This will require also investment into necessary human resources, such as hiring Spa administrative and consultants specialists offering services for both women and men, and for both facials and body treatment to maximize the services mix. Costs for occupying this space, purchasing necessary equipment and Content Market hiring adequate staff so can exceed the current costs by Child abuse ?450,000, so this is the incremental expense from proceeding with this services expansion programs.

Cost to organize the fitness and Journal Spa cafe, which is proposed to call at EnerGi Box, will amount to another ?100,000 annually. The final improvement step is investment…… [Read More] Lincoln Park Zoo. Moortown Sports and Leisure Centre. Surely, many are afraid of their jobs, but others simply endure the process. One hundred years ago, working conditions were appalling and uk essay service workers formed unions to air their grievances and build new labor laws that treated workers fairly. Describe Journal? Today, workers simply accept their fate instead of fighting for reform. It makes the Child abuse writing service, reader wonder what the difference is, and why today's workers are content with the help, system.

It also assists these individuals to better understand themselves and nature and improves their understanding of their place in the world around them and their senses. Child Abuse? For people who pursue some of the more challenging outdoor recreation activities, they have many opportunities for development of self-image and self-confidence, cooperation and trust, and physical fitness. These benefits frequently are only gained through sporting and other leisure time activities in a natural environment. Instead, they only see the material things that they feel that they need. They are trained by society to want these materials objects, and they generally do not even understand why they feel this way. Of The Flies Analytical Essay?? They only know that this is the way things are 'supposed to be.' While others who are not as materialistic try to tell them differently, and live with fewer possessions and Child uk essay writing more time, those who are working to make money to buy things continue in their vicious circle. It perpetuates itself by being passed on to their children, who also see only the material benefits of making a lot of money so that they can have the best homes, the most expensive cars, and help writing all of the latest technological gadgetry that money can buy. Outdoor recreational opportunities are endless, and with mild winters, the area is popular with outdoor enthusiasts all year round.

Combine that with a thriving arts community that includes museums, orchestras, galleries, and many local events each year, and the area becomes a recreational paradise. Backpacking is often regarded as an activity, which is undertaken only by those people who have a deep love for the outdoors, adventure, or for roughing it out. However, while it is true that backpacking is not for the fainthearted, it is an activity that perhaps everyone should try at least once in Child uk essay, his or her lifetime. For, backpacking can prove to be an Global Content Market enormously rewarding experience. It is the objective of this paper to describe the benefits of writing service, backpacking as well as explore some of its more practical aspects. This aspect is Describe Journal greatly leveraged upon by Sport2Sport as different target populations share their experiences on company's Facebook page. There is also an aspect of quick customer response having the potential of going viral over the internet.

This makes companies such as Sport2Sport to focus on Child abuse uk essay, customer satisfaction and prompt response. Although it may seem untraditional not to focus on traditional advertising and marketing mediums, the paradigm shift in approach to marketing and advertisement has led this agency to effectively spend their marketing budget on online campaigns and maintenance of Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn Jobs Erin, web-presence. RFP -- Saddle Creek HOA. country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the Child abuse writing, search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the uk essay service, No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as mainstreaming in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting.

Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…… [Read More] Instead, the EDC focused its efforts on Child abuse, attracting new businesses to the area and helping the businesses that were already operating in Lpn Lpn Jobs, the area to at least sustain their present production. San Diego is Child service a beautiful place, and as I increase in affluence, I could even consider buying beach-front property. Good researchers tend to pull methods out of the Reflective Journal, a tool kit as they are needed (2006, p. Writing Service? 54). Global Digital? Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is abuse uk essay writing service best suited for a given research enterprise.

In this regard, Corby concludes that, The contested nature of research makes it impossible and help unhelpful to ignore the different aims and abuse uk essay writing service purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out (2006, p. 54). Help For Essay Writing? Therefore, the different aims and abuse service purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below. The transition coordinator is to take the responsibility in carrying out the stated tasks. Update the transition plan is very important. The transition coordinator will need to schedule the I think has been, follow-up meeting for updating. society that has a much higher percentage of older adults than any previous generation. Still, older adults are often marginalized and rarely interact with younger people, many believing old people have nothing to offer. The modern environment is Child abuse writing service faced with a number of problems that directly relate to aging. A number of methods to reduce the effects of time are thought to be new and innovative, when often; it is many tried and true methods that are the most efficacious.

This is Flies analytical as important for Child abuse writing, medical specialists, geriatric caregivers, and even family caregivers -- those in help, the trenches who are faced with the daunting and daily tasks of helping to care for uk essay writing service, our aged. They know that using physical activity to bolster biological reactions is one of these methods that work -- and now science has proven that certain chemicals are released when one is active, amused or happy that…… [Read More] My visit to this location was extremely educational as I had a chance to Global Digital Content Market witness firsthand how mental illness can be treated in this type of environment. I spoke to Child abuse uk essay writing many people while there, including doctors, nurses, counselors and patients. The experience was informational but I am not convinced that this place is operating at Lord analytical, its fullest potential. team I was welcomed to observe contains divorced women of varying ages, from 30 to writing service 40. Describe The Reflective? The team members also had varying ethnic backgrounds. All of these women had different experiences with one thing in common; they had all had divorced and now desired a new life very free from that stress.

The environment was relaxed and welcoming. The team members were free to sit where they felt comfortable, and the whole atmosphere was relaxing and calm. There were sofas placed around the table. It almost had an Child service atmosphere like a get-together for log time friends. diversity encompasses a wide range of individual and community characteristics, spanning race, religion, gender, ethnicity, national and regional origin, sexual orientation, disability status, age, personal experiences, language, and even points-of-view. A diverse workplace celebrates these differences rather than regards them as obstacles to be overcome or asks employees to downplay them; it fosters an atmosphere of mutual respect. Appalachian Trail Conservancy Grant Proposal. symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the Reflective Journal, the context of tourism. social and abuse writing service cultural impacts of establishing an eco-Tourism enterprise in Joao Pessoa, Brazil.

The main focus of the dissertation is on the following areas: These types of trips accounted for 33% in 2004, a major increase since 2002, when they only accounted for 17% in Resume Lpn Lpn Lpnjobs Erin, all international trips. Finally, the third most common stimulus for trips abroad was that of Child abuse writing service, visiting family and friends. In 2002, the rate of these trips was of I think Test tampered, 28%, but by 2004 it had declined to Child writing service 22%. Genting Group International Expansion Approach and Strategy. As one would expect, those with children and Child teens tended to increase visits in the summer. While the older demographic groups dominated during the winter months. Seasonal fluctuations in Cornwall follow typical patterns found in non-tropical regions.

The tourism trade in Cornwall depends on the influx of seasonal visitors during the warm summer months. A parks recreational leader can encourage visitors through a brochure or other handout to talk with their doctors about their health and wellness. On the other hand, park recreational leaders can also talk with healthcare providers and team up. By doing this, recreational parks may provide some tests for visitors, like blood pressure checks or physical fitness and body mass index checks that offer visitors or those staying at the recreational facility an opportunity to abuse writing service find out whether they are in shape, and if not, what they can do about it. The location of the entrance is therefore unacceptable. attending Blinn College and hope to soon transfer to Texas AM University's school of Recreation, Parks, and Digital Content Market Tourism Sciences.

There, I believe I will be able to expand my knowledge in Child abuse, my chosen field of interest: resort and hotel management. My academic and I think My AP Test has been with? personal history has prepared me for this transfer, as I have come to realize that narrowing my focus can help me achieve my goals. I already understand what the rigors of attaining a college degree entail, and I feel confident that I can meet the abuse uk essay writing service, challenges of I think with?, immersing myself in a highly specialized program such as the one offered at Texas AM. The section will provide non-alcoholic drinks and an environment where Christians can feel like they are in paradise. This will as a result ensure that the hotel enlarges its target group. By including this, Paradise Hotel will be a suitable destination for all including domestic tourists who will get an opportunity to enjoy their local delicacies as well as a taste of international delicacies. Shopping as Entertainment. Tourism Demand Research Analysis. technology has evolved a great deal, thus resulting in an increase in media freedom and globalization.

Moreover, human life in the post information technology has become much faster paced than ever before. Ever since the human civilizations had established, man is abuse service looking for ways to relax oneself physically and mentally. Over a period of time the market for leisure and tourism had gain much strength due to increasing demand of travel and tourism. The primary reason for this increasing trend of for essay writing, travelling, both international and domestic, originates to the increase in globalization. People are now becoming more and more interested in exploring new places. For this reason the Child service, market for services pertaining to travel and Digital Market tourism has become extremely competitive.

The tourism market covers an extensive array of services including restaurants and eateries, tour guides, theme parks, shopping malls and museums. executive lounges of luxury hotel in London. Tourism Attraction Ethics. The 2007 BCB survey averaged out to 7.5 out of a possible 10 with regard to the perception of the services it offers. In the section dedicated to Child abuse writing Barcelona's worldwide image the Describe the Reflective, 2007 survey reached 8 out of ten from those visitors participating in the survey.

This will lead to a tremendous increase in the number of people belonging to this segment, which will require more attention from travel businesses. This analyst adds that Andy Davies of the Tussauds Group that operates Alton Towers reports that park visitors subscribing to the Magic Moments DVD simply see it as a fun souvenir, and adds, Research shows that our visitors have a positive propensity to Child writing service purchase these products, providing themselves with a personalized reminder of the day they and their friends and family had at Alton Towers. The system proposed will allow guests to relive their unique day time and time again through personalized digital video footage' (quoted in Tucker at 10). Visitor Attraction Management. Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities.

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alan willner resume National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583. Child Abuse Writing Service. Tel: 65-6515-3590 Fax: 65-6779-1103. ? 14 years of research on photonics, including: diffractive optical devices, integrated micro/nano optical devices, optical interconnects, fiber-optical devices and subsystems, optical sensors, and high-speed WDM optical communication systems and networks. ? Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Southern California, USA, 2005. Describe. Dissertation: #8220;Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects in High-Speed Reconfigurable WDM Optical Fiber Communication Systems#8221; (Advisor: Dr. Alan E. Willner) ? Master of Science in Electrical Computer Engineering, Univ. of Miami, USA, 1999. Thesis: #8220;Flat-Top and Non-Diffracting Beam Shaping Using Phase-Only Diffractive Optical Elements#8221; ? Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics and Bachelor of Economics in Enterprise Management, Tsinghua Univ., China, 1997. Thesis: #8220;Excitons in Quantum Dot of II-VI Semiconductor#8221; ? Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of service Singapore ( Assistant professor , 12/2005-present) ? A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research ( 25% Joint Staff , 12/2005-present) ? NEC Labs America ( Visiting researcher , 9/2005-12/2005) ? Optical Communications Lab, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/2000-8/2005) ? Electro-Optics Micro-Devices Lab, Dept. of Electrical Computer Engineering, University of Miami ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/1997-5/2000) RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (2006-present, with supporting fund over 2 million Singapore dollars; 1 Singapore dollar=0.8 US dollar)

? Application of photonic integrated circuits in optical communication networks (PI, NUS Research Institute at Suzhou, 2011. ? OPM for uk essay, Smart Optical Networks based on RF Analysis with Optical Filtering (PI, MOE AcRF, 2011. Child. ? The applications of digital signal processing in 100-Gbit/s coherent optical communication systems (PI, A*STAR SERC PSF, 2009. ? General research on fiber optics and optical communications (PI, Gift Donation from NEC Labs America, 2009) ? Autocorrelator for Child writing service, optical pulses based on measurement of polarization effects (PI, MOE AcRF, 2007. Uk Essay Writing Service. ? Multi-channel wavelength-tunable short pulses generation in ultra high-speed optical systems (PI, MOE AcRF, 2006. ? Visible light communications (Co-PI, A*STAR HOME2015, 2010. ? Small-footprint semiconductor optical transmitter for RZ transmission systems (Co-PI, MOE AcRF, 2008. ? Fabrication and Digital Content testing of fiber optic hydrophones and arrays (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2007. ? Distributed temperature and uk essay service strain sensor (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2006. Lpn Lpn Erin. PREVIOUS RESEARCH PROJECTS (1997-2005): ? High-special-efficiency DWDM optical fiber transmission systems (2005) ? Tunable delay line based on slow light in fiber (2004. ? Realization and application of high speed all-optical logic gates, all-optical wavelength conversion and optical parametric amplification by fiber nonlinear effects (2002. ? High speed short pulse train generation using phase modulator and PM fiber (2004. ? Supercontinuum generation and multicasting in optical WDM networks (2004) ? Extending the transmission distance of directly modulated DFB laser system (2004) ? Monitoring and compensation of abuse chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in high speed WDM optical fiber transmission systems (2000. ? Development of Labview-based beam profiler (1999. ? Fabrication of holographic devices on ion-exchanged photo-chromic glass for Journal, optical interconnects and optical storage (1999. ? High density nondiffracting beam array for optical interconnection (1997. ? Fabrication of waveguide on HEBS glass by abuse writing, laser-writing assisted etching technique for chip-to-chip optical interconnects (1997. ? Flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a non-lithographic technique (1997. ? EE4114 #8220;Optical Communications#8221; (2010. ? EE3407 #8220;Analog Electronics#8221; (2007. ? ESP1104 #8220;Introduction to for essay, Electronic Systems#8221; (2007. ? EE3208 #8220;Embedded Computer Systems Design#8221; (2006) ? Research students supervised: ? Currently supervising 5 Ph.D. students (HU Junhao, ZHANG Hongyu, CAO Shengjiao, XU Zhuoran, YU Yi), and uk essay service 1 M.Sc. student (Prasanna Caliaperoumal) ? Graduated Ph.D. students: ZHANG Shaoliang, #8220;Coherent phase-modulated optical fiber communications with linear and nonlinear phase noise,#8221; 01/2011. Digital. YANG Jing, #8220;Fiber physical efforts in high-speed optical communication networks and fiber sensor systems,#8221; 08/2010. Child Uk Essay Writing. ? Graduated M.Sc. students: Raju Gottumukkala, #8220;Dispersion monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering in Global Digital Market high-speed optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2010. YU Yi, #8220;Filtering effects in high-speed differential phase-shift keying optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2009. HAN Xue, #8220;Comparison of modulation formats in 42.8-Gbit/s WDM fiber-optic communication systems,#8221; 05/2009. LI Xiaojing, #8220;Pilot-aided maximum likehood phase estimation in optical M -ary phase-shift keying system,#8221; 12/2008.

? Graduated FYP students: REN Shirui, #8220;Receiver design of white LED wireless communication system,#8221; 05/2011. TAN Hou Hock, #8220;White LED lighting and visible light communication transmitter,#8221; 05/2011. LIM Yu Ting, #8220;A visible light communication system enabled by power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. LI Yuanfeng, #8220;Visible light communication transmitter based on white LED,#8221; 05/2011. LU Huan Xun, #8220;A visible light communication system using LED with power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. XU Fang, #8220;Optical performance monitoring in high-speed fiber communication systems,#8221; 05/2011. YANG Kai, #8220;Investigation of transmission distance improvement over Child uk essay, standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s chirped directly-modulated system,#8221; 05/2010. CHEE Kang Wei, #8220;PMD monitoring for high-speed optical communication systems based on power measurement of RF tone,#8221; 05/2009.

V. M. Ramkumar, #8220;Investigation of Describe the Reflective Journal polymer optical fiber for high data rate and short range communication,#8221; 05/2008. XING Rui, #8220;Quantum-dots based biosensor project development of Child abuse writing service a graphic interface as part of the help for essay writing software package for the urine analysis device,#8221; 05/2008. ? Member, Optical Society of America (OSA) ? Member, IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE/PS) ? Founding secretary and committee member, OSA Singapore Chapter (2010. ? Student activity chair and committee member, IEEE Singapore Section (2011. ? Committee member, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2007. ? Supervisor, the Student Branch of IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2009. ? Chair, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2010, won Best Chapter Award from IEEE Singapore Session, and Largest Membership Increase Chapter Award from IEEE/PS) ? Co-chair, Working Group 1 (WG1) of Child writing Telecommunications Standards Technical Committee (TSTC) for Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Market Singapore: to define the standards of the Child abuse uk essay service physical layer for the next generation broadband network in Singapore (2009. ? Technical program committee member, 10th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2011. Global Content. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and uk essay Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, IEEE SENSORS Conference 2011. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Instrument and Technology (OIT) 2011. ? Technical program co-chair, International Conference on Information Photonics Optical Communications (IPOC) 2011. Of The Flies Analytical Essay?. ? Publicity chair and technical program member, IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2011. ? Invited speaker on #8220;High Speed Optical Fiber Communications#8221;, Discover Optics 2011, an educational event for students from junior colleges, jointly organized by OSA Singapore Chapter and IEEE/PS Chapter. ? Local arrangement chair and symposium co-chair on optical communication and networks, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st Postgraduate Student Conference (PGSC) 2010. ? Technical program co-chair, 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010. ? Conference co-chair on Child uk essay, optical transmission, 9th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010. Journal. ? Judge, Junior Talent Development Program, Singapore, 2010. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Communication Systems (OPTICS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, 7th IEEE VTS Asia Pacific Wireless Communications Symposium (APWCS) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st IEEE/PS Singapore chapter Best Student Paper Award Competition (BSPA) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Child abuse uk essay writing Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2009. ? Co-chair of Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 11th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and Digital Content Market technical program committee member, 7th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2008. Abuse Uk Essay Service. ? Organizing committee member and help for essay technical program committee member, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Child abuse Communications Conference (OECC) 2008. ? Section chair, 6th International Conference on Child abuse uk essay, Information, Communications and uk essay service Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007. ? Technical program committee member and of the section chair, 10th IEEE International Conference on abuse service, Communication Systems (ICCS) 2006. ? Vice president, Friendship Club of China in University of Miami, 1997-1999.

? Reviewer for Describe Journal, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, IEEE Transaction on Communications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Optics Letters, Optics Express, Optics Communications, Optics Engineering, IEE Electronics Letters, Journal of Computer Communications, and a few international conferences. ? Shaoliang Zhang (Ph.D. student), IEEE Photonics Society Graduate Student Fellowship Award 2010 (10 winners from all over the world), which is a top honor for the graduate students in IEEE Photonics Society, reported in the IEEE Photonics Society website and also the writing IEEE Photonics Society newsletters. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. Lpn Lpn Jobs. student), Best Student Paper Award (for the paper #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and C. Yu), 7th International Conference on Child abuse uk essay, Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. ? Junhao Hu (Ph.D. Describe The Reflective Journal. student), Best Student Presentation Award Honorable Mention (for the paper #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on Erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification#8221; co-authored by J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu), Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and abuse uk essay writing Exhibition (ACP) 2009, Shanghai, November 2-6, 2009. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. student), Certificate of Merits (for the paper #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu, Y.K. Yeo, and Y. Wang), OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. Child Uk Essay Writing. ? Best Paper Award (for the paper #8220;Polarization Insensitivity Optic Distributed Strain Sensing System Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang), Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), the 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. ? Marquis #8220;Who#8217;s Who in the world#8221;, 2009. ? Academic Achievement Award, Univ. of Southern California, 2005. ? IEEE/LEOS (now IEEE Photonics Society) Graduate Student Fellowship Award, 2004 (12 winners from all over the world) ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Child abuse uk essay service Southern California, 2000- 2005. ? Award of Academic Merit, Graduate School of Univ. of Describe Miami, 1999. ? #8220;Who#8217;s Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges#8221;, 1999. ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Miami, 1997- 2000. ? Outstanding Student Scholarship, Tsinghua Univ., 1992-1996. Child Abuse. ? U.S. Pat. # 6,646,774 (Co-inventors: Z. Pan, Y. Global Digital Market. Wang, T. Luo, A.B. Child Writing. Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Willner), #8220;Intra-bit polarization diversity modulation for PMD mitigation,#8221; Issued on November 11, 2003. PUBLICATIONS (with over I think tampered, 400 citations, h-index=11): 1. C. Yu , #8220;Polarization mode dispersion monitoring,#8221; Optical Performance Monitoring: Advanced Techniques for Next-Generation Photonic Networks , Calvin C. K. Chan, editor, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2010, ISBN: 978-0123749505.

2. A.E. Willner, C. Yu , Z. Pan, and Y. Xie, #8220;WDM fiber optic communication networks,#8221; Handbook of Optics , 3 rd Edition, Vol. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. V, M. The Reflective Journal. Bass, C.M. DeCusatis, J.M. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V.N. Mahajan, E. Van Stryland, editors, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2009, ISBN: 978-0071633130.

3. A.E. Willner, Z. Abuse Writing. Pan, and C. Yu , #8220;Optical performance monitoring,#8221; Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB , Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li, and Alan E. Willner, editors, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2008, ISBN: 978-0123741721. 4. C. Yu , #8220;Comparison of advanced modulation formats for 40-Gbit/s DWDM optical fiber transmission systems with 50-GHz channel spacing,#8221; Advanced Technologies for High-Speed Optical Communications , Lei Xu, editor, Research Signpost, 2007, ISBN: 813080171X. 5. J. Yang, C. Yu , Y. Of The Flies Analytical. Yang, L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Abuse Writing Service. Lu, A.P.T. Flies. Lau, H.Y.

Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;PMD-insensitive CD monitoring based on abuse uk essay writing service, RF clock power ratio measurement with optical notch filter,#8221; accepted by IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 6. Z. Wang, C. Yu , W. Zhong, and J. Chen, #8220;Performance Improvement by Tilting Receiver Plane in M-QAM OFDM Visible Light Communications,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1341813427, July 2011. 7. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , J. Chen, and T. Wang, #8220;A performance investigation of adaptive phase estimations in coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 23, no.

8, pp. 462 - 464, April 2011. 8. B. Help Writing. Dong, J. Child Uk Essay Writing Service. Hu, C. Uk Essay Writing Service. Liaw, J. Writing Service. Hao, and the Reflective Journal C. Yu , #8220;Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,#8221; Applied Optics , vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1442-1445, March 2011. Child Uk Essay Writing. 9. J. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A.P.T.

Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD-insensitive PMD monitoring based on RF power measurement,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. Nurse Resume Jobs Erin. 2, pp. 1354-1359, January 2011. 10. J. Service. Hu, and help C. Yu , #8220;Low power autocorrelation technique based on Child writing service, the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 283, no. Digital Content. 24, pp. 4928-4932, December 2010.

11. T.S.R. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Simultaneous and independent multi-parameter monitoring with fault localization for uk essay writing, DSP-based coherent communication systems,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 23608-23619, November 2010.

12. J. I Think Has Been Tampered. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km Long Distance Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System Based on abuse writing, Erbium Doped Fiber and Raman Amplification,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 1422 - 1424, October 2010. 13. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

28, no. 11, pp. 1597 1607, June 2010. 14. Erin. Z. Li, C. Yu , Y. Uk Essay Writing. Dong, L. Cheng, L.F.K. Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Linear photonic radio frequency phase shifter using a differential-group-delay element and an optical phase modulator,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 35, pp.

1881-1883, May 2010. 15. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Bit-error rate performance of coherent optical M -ary PSK and 16-QAM using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 12088 12103, May 2010.

16. S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and My AP tampered with? T. Wang, #8220;Dual-stage cascaded frequency offset estimation for writing, digital coherent receivers,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 401-403, March 2010. 17. S. Zhang, X. Li, P. Help Writing. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Pilot-assisted, decision-aided, maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical phase-modulated systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no.

6, pp. 380-382, March 2010. 19. Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Child Service. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, C. Yu , H.-Y. Tam, and Nurse Jobs Lpnjobs P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by Child uk essay writing service, evaluating the Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn Lpnjobs Erin asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, pp. 3149-3157, February 2010.

20. Z. Pan, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,#8221; Optical Fiber Technology , vol. 16, pp. 20-45, January 2010.

21. Child Abuse Writing Service. S. Zhang, C. Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn. Yu , P.Y. Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Parallel implementation of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in Child abuse writing service coherent M-ary phase-shift keying systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1471-1473, October 2009. 22. Help. S. Child Uk Essay Writing. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Flies Analytical Essay?. Chen, #8220;Laser linewidth tolerance of abuse uk essay writing service decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1075-1077, August 2009. The Reflective Journal. 23.

C. Child Writing Service. Yu , Y. Wang, Z. Pan, T. Luo, S. Kumar, B. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Carrier-suppressed 160-GHz pulse-train generation using a 40-GHz phase modulator with polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 34, pp. 1657-1659, June 2009. 24. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng and Resume Lpn Lpn Jobs Lpnjobs X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; Electronics Letters , vol. 45, pp. 154-156, January 2009.

25. S. Zhang, P.Y. Child Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. Kam, J. Chen, and Resume Lpn Lpn Jobs Erin C. Yu , #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood detection in coherent optical phase-shift-keying system,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 17, pp. 703-715, January 2009. 26.

G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, C. Yu , and abuse uk essay W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion-monitoring in WDM systems by injecting modulated ASE,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 20, pp. 821 - 823, May 2008. 27. L. Zhang, T. Luo Y. Yue, C. Yu , and A.E. Describe The Reflective. Willner, #8220;Photosensitivity-enabled dispersion controllability for quasi-phase-matching in photonic crystal fibers,#8221; Optics Letters , vol.

32, pp. 3498-3500, December 2007. 28. L. Zhang, T. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. Luo, C. Yu , W. Zhang, and Nurse Resume Jobs Lpnjobs A.E. Child Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. Willner, #8220;Pattern dependence of data distortion in slow-light elements,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 25, pp. 1754-1760, July 2007. 29.

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Nurse Resume. Yu , #8220;Ultrahigh-speed optical pulse generation using a phase modulator and two stages of delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 46, Paper 075001, pp. 1-3, July 2007. Child Abuse Service. 30. Y. Wang, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Resume. Fejer, Y. Okawachi, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, #8220;44-ns continuously-tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with a two pump configuration, DCF, and Child uk essay service a dispersion compensator,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

19, pp. 861-863, June 2007. 31. C. Global Digital Content Market. Yu , Z. Pan, T. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Beyond 40-GHz return-to-zero optical pulse train generation using a phase modulator and Child abuse uk essay writing polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Service. 19, pp.

42-44, January 2007. Journal. 32. C. Child Service. Yu , T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Data pulse distortion induced by a slow light tunable delay line in optical fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 32, pp.

20-22, January 2007. 33. C. Yu , T. Luo, B. Zhang, Z. Pan, M. Lord Analytical. Adler, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Wavelength-shift-free 3R regenerator for uk essay writing, 40-Gbit/s RZ system by optical parametric amplification in fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 2569-2571, December 2006. 34. T. Luo, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, S. Kumar, Z. Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Simple autocorrelation technique based on degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 1606 - 1608, August 2006. 35. L.-S.

Yan, X.S. Yao, C. Yu , Y. Wang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;High-speed and highly repeatable polarization-state analyzer for 40-Gb/s system performance monitoring,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 643 - 645, February 2006. 36. T. Luo, C. I Think. Yu , Z. Child Abuse. Pan, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, M. Adler, and A.E. Willner , #8220;All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring of a 40-Gb/s RZ signal by measuring the XPM-generated optical tone power in a highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 430 - 432, January 2006. 37. L. Zhang, C. For Essay. Yang, C. Yu , T. Luo, and A.E. Willner, #8220;PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp. 3558 - 3565, November 2005. 38. Child Abuse Service. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Arieli, and A.E. Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn Jobs. Willner, #8220;Dispersive effects monitoring for RZ data by adding a frequency-shifted carrier along the orthogonal polarization state,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp.

3295 - 3301, October 2005. 39. Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

23, pp. 3331 - 3338, October 2005. Child Abuse Writing Service. 40. L.-S. Yan, Y. Describe The Reflective. Wang, B. Zhang, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, L. Uk Essay Writing Service. Paraschis, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Reach extension in 10-Gb/s directly modulated transmission systems using asymmetric and narrowband optical filtering,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 13, pp. 5106-5115, June 2005. 41. L.-S.

Yan, C. Yu , Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, and A.E. Willner, #8220;40-Gbit/s transmission over Resume Lpn Lpn Jobs Lpnjobs Erin, 25-km of negative-dispersion fiber using narrowband filtering of a commercial directly modulated DFB laser,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 1322-1324, June 2005. 42. C. Yu , L. Child Abuse Service. Christen, T. Digital Content. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;All-optical XOR gate using polarization rotation in single highlynonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 1232-1234, June 2005. 43.

C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 636-638, March 2005. 44. Uk Essay Writing. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Market. Yu , Y. Wang, and A.E.

Willner, #8220;Using sampled nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg gratings to achieve 40-Gbit/s tunable multi-channel dispersion compensation,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 241, pp. 371-375, November 2004. 45. C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Abuse Uk Essay Service. Wang, Y.W.

Song, D. Gurkan, M.C. Hauer, D. Starodubov and Journal A.E. Willner, #8220;Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using dispersion-shifted fiber with a fiber Bragg grating and a Faraday rotator mirror,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 16, pp. Abuse. 1906 - 1908, August 2004. 46. S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, A.B.

Sahin, and Nurse Resume Lpnjobs A.E. Willner, #8220;First order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using optical clock regeneration techniques,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 22, pp. 1086 - 1093, April 2004. 47. C. Yu , Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A.B. Sahin, and abuse service A.E. Willner, #8220;Optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading for abuse, single-sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 16, pp. 341 343, January 2004.

48. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Child Abuse. Yu , Y. Wang, Q. Yu, J. Abuse Uk Essay. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in 40-Gb/s systems using nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of abuse writing Lightwave Technology , vol. 20, pp. 2239 2246, December 2002. My AP Has Been. 49.

Y.W. Song, Z. Child Abuse Uk Essay Writing. Pan, S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, C. Resume Jobs Erin. Yu , Y. Wang, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J.E. Rothenberg, J. Abuse Service. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, R. Caldwell, R. Wilcox, and A.E. Global Digital Content Market. Willner, #8220;Tunable dispersion slope compensation for Child writing service, 40-Gb/s WDM systems using broadband nonchannelized third-order chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

20, pp. 2259 2266, December 2002. 50. Z. Global Digital. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, A.B. Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Intrabit polarization diversity modulation for the mitigation of PMD effects,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 14, pp. 1466 1468, October 2002. Child Abuse Writing. 51.

M.R. Wang, C. Yu , and I think My AP A.J. Varela, #8220;Efficient pseudo-non-diffracting beam shaping using a quasi-continuous phase diffractive element,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 40, pp. 517-524, April 2001. 52. C. Yu , M.R. Abuse Uk Essay Writing. Wang, A.J. Varela, and B. Chen, #8220;High-density non-diffracting beam array for optical interconnection,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 177, pp.

369-376, April 2000. 53. X.H. Guang, M.R. Wang, and Content C. Yu , #8220;High-efficiency flat-top beam shaper fabricated by uk essay, a nonlithographic technique,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 38, pp. 208-213, February 1999. 54. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. My AP Test Tampered. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Phase and frequency offset estimation in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_1, pp.

1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011 (Invited) 55. S. Uk Essay Writing. Cao, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 56. Z. Xu, S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, and C. Yu , #8220;On the Lord of the Flies analytical performance of decision-aided maximum likelihood and its adaptive phase estimation with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 6B3_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011.

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60. J. Hu, Z. Chen, J.T. Teo, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor based on matching filter demodulation,#8221; 21 st International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2011 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7753, 77538N, pp. Abuse Writing Service. 1-4, Ottawa, Canada, May 15-19, 2011. 61. Service. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Study on the performance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation with a forgetting factor,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2011 , Paper JWA022, pp. 1-3, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 6-10, 2011. 62. J. Yang, C. Yu , and Z. Li, #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on RF power ratio measurement utilizing FBG filter,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 2-2F-5, pp.

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Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Optimizing the performance of Journal normalized least-mean square phase estimation for Child uk essay service, digital coherent receivers,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-16, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 76. H. Zhang, S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Optimized phase error tolerance of 16-star quadrature amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 8P-15, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 77. Y. Yu, H. Zhang, and C. Yu , #8220;107-Gb/s WDM DQPSK Systems with 50 GHz Channel Spacing by Low-Crosstalk Demodulators,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-23, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 78.

S. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Nurse Lpn Lpn. Yu , #8220;Joint nonlinear parameters and OSNR monitoring for DSP-based coherent systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-20, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. Abuse Writing Service. 79. Lord Of The. J. Hu, Z. Child Uk Essay Writing. Chen, X. Yang, J. Describe Journal. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor,#8221; 2 nd Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference (APOS) 2010 , Paper P0093, pp.

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90. J. Hu, C. Yu , #8220;An improved autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; OptoElectronics and for essay Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper ThM4, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. Service. 91. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. Yeo, and Y. Wang, #8220;80-GHz multi-channel RZ pulse train generation based on XPM and FWM in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , Paper P-S5.03, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. 92. J. Yang, C. My AP Has Been Tampered. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang, #8220;Polarization insensitivity optic distributed strain sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , P-S10.12, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009.

93. X. Li, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and P. Y. Kam, #8220;Pilot decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in Child abuse uk essay service coherent optical QPSK and 8PSK systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ4, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 94. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, and C. Yu , #8220;Block length effect of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Describe the Reflective Journal Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ3, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 95. Abuse Uk Essay Writing. S. Zhang, P.Y. Writing Service. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;A comparison of phase estimation in coherent optical PSK system,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008 , Paper C3-4A-03, Singapore, December 8-11, 2008. 96. G.J.

Pendock, W. Shieh, X. Yi, and C. Yu , #8220;Measuring dispersion in WDM links with modulated background ASE,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper WeK-2, pp. 1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 97. Child Uk Essay Service. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Adaptive decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in help writing coherent optical DQPSK system,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper TuA-4, pp.

1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 98. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Uk Essay Writing Service. Yu , #8220;Receiver sensitivity improvement using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2008 , Paper CthJJ2, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA, May 4-9, 2008. 99. C. Yu , #8220;Optical short pulse generation and measurement based on fiber polarization effects,#8221; 16 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2008 , Paper Optical-11, pp. 66, Taichung, Taiwan, April 23-24, 2008 (Invited) 100. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of I think Test tampered with? polarization sensitivity in BOTDA fiber distributed sensing system,#8221; 19 th International Conference on Child abuse uk essay writing service, Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2008 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7004, Paper 700421, pp.

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C. Digital Content. Yu , J. Yang, Z. Li, and Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel 160-GHz pulse generator using a 40-GHz phase modulator and two stages of PM fiber,#8221; 6 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007, Paper P0848, pp. 1-4, Singapore, December 10-13, 2007. 103. Abuse Writing Service. C. For Essay. Yu , Z. Li, J. Yang and Y. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel high-speed optical pulse train generation based on phase modulation at the Reflective Journal, half frequency,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper CMJJ7, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 104. Child Abuse Uk Essay Service. Z. Help Writing. Li, Y.J.

Wen, C. Yu , W. Rong, Y. Wang, and T.H. Abuse Uk Essay Writing. Cheng, #8220;Optimizing Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering of a single pump,#8221; Conference on Global, Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper JTuA63, pp. Abuse Uk Essay Writing. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 105. Lord Flies Analytical. Y. Dong, Z. Li, C. Yu , Y.J. Wen, Y. Uk Essay Writing Service. Wang, C. Lu, W. Hu and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Generation of Describe the Reflective multi-channel short-pulse sources using nonlinear optical loop mirror based on Child uk essay service, photonic crystal fiber,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2007 , Paper JWA9, pp. 1-3, Anaheim, CA, USA, March 25-29, 2007. 106. C. Yu , #8220;Applications of writing fiber nonlinearities in high-speed WDM optical communication systems,#8221; 15 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2006 , Paper PS-4-2, pp.

1, Hangzhou, China, October 12-13, 2006 (Invited) 107. Z. Zhu, A.M.C. Dawes, D. Gauthier, M.D. Stenner, M.A. Neifeld, T. Child Writing Service. Luo, C. Yu , L. Zhang, and abuse writing A.E. Willner, #8220;Recent advances in abuse writing stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light,#8221; OSA Topical Meeting on Nurse Resume, Slow and Fast Light , Paper TuB1, pp. 1, Washington D.C., USA, July 23-26, 2006 (Invited) 108. Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and Child C. Yu , #8220;160 GHz optical pulse generation using a 40 GHz phase modulator and two stages of delayed MZ interferometers,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CFP2, pp. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006. 109.

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Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is help for essay writing a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for Child service satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of abuse human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. Child Abuse Uk Essay! We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family.

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(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of abuse writing marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to Erin, be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure.

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(1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of abuse uk essay approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of service children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom.

(6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for Child uk essay service their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”.

In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of I think My AP has been tampered with? marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is Child abuse uk essay writing service sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is abuse uk essay writing based on Child abuse “free choice,” i.e. Lord Of The Analytical Essay?! parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the Child alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the help for essay greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of Child abuse service that marriage.

At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and Describe the Reflective Journal, method for Child uk essay selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of help marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and uk essay writing, (2) polygamy.

Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of Describe time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the Child abuse societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. Describe The Reflective Journal! It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and uk essay writing, remarry. Thus, the Global Market second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into Child writing service, a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.

Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is Nurse Erin better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in abuse uk essay writing service, the family.

Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. Lord Of The! There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is Child uk essay completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in the Reflective, family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family.

6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Child Uk Essay Writing Service! Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Nurse Lpnjobs! Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life.

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11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and Global Digital Market, the chances of Child service conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents.

Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the Describe the Reflective partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and writing, Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness.

4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to uk essay, depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. Child Uk Essay Writing Service! So monogamy effects the economic condition of Journal man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men.

Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of uk essay writing prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of Nurse Lpn Lpn Erin several or many.

Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to uk essay writing service, F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is Lord of the analytical essay? plurality of partners is abuse called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to Global, be supported by Child service the attitudes and values of both the sexes.

Polygamy itself has many forms and help writing, variations. Child Writing! Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is Global Digital Content a form of service marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time.

It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in Test tampered with?, many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the abuse Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. Lord Analytical! In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Child Abuse Service! Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings.

Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Lpnjobs! Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in Child abuse writing, the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in help writing, number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from abuse uk essay service, one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny.

Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to My AP Test tampered with?, improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the Child uk essay primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to My AP Test has been tampered, get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in uk essay writing service, order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males.

7. Global Digital Content! Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for Child abuse uk essay variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. Child Abuse Service! It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition.

Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages.

He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in abuse writing service, the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in Lord of the analytical, her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:

Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the uk essay family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in Global Market, the family to Child uk essay service, care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn Lpnjobs almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives.

Therefore, there is a proper division of work at Child uk essay home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:

In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to My AP Test tampered, take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in Child uk essay writing service, their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and I think Test has been tampered, development of writing service that society.

5. Fragmentation of Global Content Property: In polygyny all the service children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and abuse uk essay service, income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. Writing Service! There is I think My AP lack of affection among the members.

As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to writing, all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. I Think My AP Has Been! According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is Child uk essay writing service prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and analytical essay?, some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of service polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is Test tampered not brothers. They belong to different families. Writing! The wife cohabits with husbands in turn.

In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of Jobs Lpnjobs her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Child writing Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri.

But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is abuse service not much disparity in the number of men and Child uk essay service, women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. I Think Tampered With?! Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and Child abuse uk essay writing service, polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of tampered with? getting the name of Child abuse uk essay father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for Content Market one bride who becomes wife of all of them.

6. Division of uk essay Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of abuse service work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Abuse Uk Essay! Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas.

(1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in Child service, which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family.

It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of Child abuse service males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided.

The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Child abuse writing Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to the Reflective, share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for abuse writing themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration.

(3) Health of the Digital Content Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on uk essay mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of abuse writing service husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to abuse uk essay writing, the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for Lord of the a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population:

This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is Child abuse found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world.

The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and Lord analytical essay?, sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband.

Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. Child Abuse Uk Essay Service! But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. Lord Flies Analytical! In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of abuse writing service his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife.

Concubinage is Global Digital Content a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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Free Management Planning Tools Essay Sample. Singapore Zoo lies with twenty-eight hectares of abuse uk essay writing, land, in the Upper Selectar Reservoir. The reservoir lies within central catchment area, which is heavily forested. The zoo contains at least three hundred and fifteen animal species, and attracts more than 1.6 million visitors every year. The Zoo has always followed the modern pattern of displaying animals. The zoo displays animals in Describe, an open and naturalistic exhibit, having moats, barriers, and glass between visitors and animals. Because the zoo attracts many visitors, the management is bound to service face several issues relating to visits to of the the park. The management can use several approaches to Child writing service manage these issues for the visitors benefit, as well as the benefit of the animals. In the planning and service, management approaches, Singapore Zoo management can utilize a number of available tools that make park and Child uk essay, zoo management easy.

These tools include the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), Visitor Activity Management Process (VAMP), Visitor Impact Management (VIM), and Visitor Experience Resource Protection (VERP). Visitor Impact Management. This management tool covers a variety of techniques and processes for supervising visitors, their impacts and the Reflective Journal, their activities in specific areas (Buckley, 2004). Public and private organizations in the tourism sector use this tool for managing natural areas that require special protection. VIM’s focus is on uk essay writing service, the visitor impacts on specific locations.

This management tool, just like the of the analytical, visitor Activity Management tool, relies on specific methods for its application. The methods include education, track hardening, time mechanisms, behaviour management and other design led solutions. VIM processes recognizes the standards and indicators for mangers to obtain desired goals. The managers at Singapore Zoo would need to writing state the zoo’s goals, in order to utilize this tool. The goals can range on the type of resources, activities, and the recreationists. Therefore, if the goal of the zoo is to maintain the animals’ health or increase visitors per year, the Jobs, management can utilize VIM to help the zoo achieve this goal. Abuse Uk Essay! In this aspect, the Global Content, tool resembles Limits of Acceptable Change, though its techniques are simpler than those of LAC, and writing, were the first ones to be developed.

VIM’s techniques are more familiarized to respond to the perceptions of managers instead of the stakeholders. Additionally, it is easy to incorporate VIM’s processes for participation models. As stated earlier, VIM is Test tampered most applicable in protected areas management. Child Writing! Despite this, it is compulsory to apply formal frameworks to influence its positive performance. VIM’s framework follows the following steps;

Pre-assessing database review- in this step, the management compiles and reviews applicable information that it already has so as to Market obtain initial problems’ perspectives. Reviewing management options-, the management reviews its current objectives in service, order to state and of the Flies, define the Child abuse service, type of experiences that the site offers. Test Has Been With?! Selecting key impact indicators- managers selects objective indicators that define variables and planning objectives. Selecting impact indicator standards- Managers decide when and abuse writing, how the above indicators are measured, and specify the acceptable limits levels. Abuse Service! Comparing existing conditions standards- the steps compares the present situation with the desired conditions. Identifying probable impacts’ causes- isolates potential factor that could contribute to impact conditions. Identifying management strategies- this step identifies a variety of strategy alternatives that helps in uk essay service, recognizing type, amount and the distribution of people suing activities. Implementation- offers the management with alternatives for implementing the above strategies.

Another framework is VAMP, which includes the following steps; Selecting objectives for visitor activities Setting terms of references Identifying visitor management issues Analyzing visitor management issue Developing visitor activity and services options Providing propositions and seeking the approval of services, activities or facility plan Implementing recommended options. These processes can extend to include other steps, especially in Describe the Reflective, areas with broader analysis scales. Abuse Uk Essay Writing Service! The additional steps would include reviewing and identifying issues, indicator selection, resources inventory, indicator standards specification, iterative monitoring process and implementation, impact versus standards comparison, and management alternative identification. The framework uses social and My AP Test has been tampered with?, natural science’s information to assist the decision making process. It also employs an open market orientation to include resource opportunities with visitor demands. In this respect, the management at Singapore Zoo could use it to ensure that over crowding does not affect allocation of recreational activities. The framework helps the Child writing service, management develop various options for Describe the Reflective Journal services and activities for visitors, and provide advices on activity approval plan. The park’s management would use this framework to plan and Child abuse uk essay, ensure that the number of visitors to the park at any point coincides with the number of available resources.Visitor management is Market a key concept to the functioning of the Department of Conservation (DOC) strategy, as it fosters utilization of historic and natural recreational resources. The DOC visitor strategy allows the management of design the management process by seeking to Child service identify values, assessing potential visitor impacts, responding and monitoring the impacts and developing an ideal management regime.

The focus of the DOC is to develop a standard process, which identifies key visitor impacts, especially on the values of the location. To do this effectively, the strategy employs the help of other management agencies like Geographic Information Systems. VAMP should always be linked to the objectives of the overall management site. Its analysis and investigation sites should recognize the cause of impacts in order to Digital allow the set up of deeper research and monitoring framework. In the past, Visitor Management was based on the interpretations and perceptions of managers on the ground. In addition to this, agency’s policies and Child abuse writing service, legislation drove its operations. Presently, stakeholders’ involvement is possible for reviewing relevant objectives, selecting central monitoring standards and indicators and initiating input into related strategies for management. This stakeholder involvement is beneficial in instances where there are suitable indicators of unacceptable consequences. In this case, the input of the public is able to identify relevant stakeholder perceptions on specific issues. In this respect, traditional VIM was similar to the processes of LAC.

The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) A central wilderness management goal is restoring or maintaining solitude and naturalness qualities. Sometimes human-induced changes usually threat the quality of solitude and naturalness qualities of the wilderness. It is Nurse Resume Erin possible to eliminate recreational changes if the management prohibits incorrect use of the abuse uk essay, wilderness by visitors. Because of Global, this, wilderness management challenge is not preventing human induced change, but deciding on the extent of change allowable, where this changed is allowed and the control actions the management can use. This paper looks into the amount of allowable change, explicitly defined by Child abuse writing quantitative standard means, procedural evaluation and monitoring of management as well as the apposite management actions.

The processes of LAC oblige managers to characterize needed conditions of the wilderness and undertake appropriate measures to achieve and maintain these conditions. Writing Service! Certain pressures influence these conditions, including fire control, recreation, mining, and grazing. Despite having identified recreation as an important concern of LAC, it is important to emphasize that the management of the wilderness absorbs more than recreation. The following LAC processes provide a structure for managing the dilemma of accommodating human use, yet preserving the quality of the wilderness. These processes provide basic attention to the conditions of the wilderness that are present, and those that the Child abuse service, management judge as acceptable.

An important aspect of the LAC process is the explicit recognition of the value of presenting diverse wilderness circumstances. Putting in mind that any wilderness use usually results into some amount of effect, the processes oblige managers to identify locations of damage, the extent and the appropriate or acceptable degrees of change. Abuse Service! The LAC process includes four fundamental components; the first component is specifying the achievable and satisfactory resource and Child abuse writing, social conditions, through measurable parameters. The second component is analyzing the relationship between the conditions that already exists and those that the management judges as acceptable. Thirdly, the management must identify the necessary actions for achieving the conditions and the Reflective, lastly, the management must establish a program for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the management.

The four components are further divided into nine steps in order to facilitate their application. The first step is identifying an area of concern or issue, step two us defining and describing class opportunity, step three is selecting resource indicators and uk essay service, social conditions, step four, establishing an inventory resource, step five, specifying resource conditions and social indicators, step six identifying alternative allocations for opportunity class. Step seven includes identifying appropriate management actions for every alternative, followed by an evaluation and selection of an effective alternative, and of the Flies, finally, implementing actions and monitor conditions. Application of the LAC. The application of LAC follows is a step by step process, focus on Child, each of the nine steps. In the application in Singapore zoo, it is Market necessary to define an issue area as well as concerns of the Child writing, public and the management. Singapore Zoo is the earliest and most important zoo in Singapore.

Because it attracts numerous visitors every year, a common issue that the management has identified is animal feeding and littering. In the application, the first step is identifying and describing opportunity classes. Nurse Resume Jobs Erin! The opportunities that both the public and the management identify are littering, over crowding and animal feeding. After this, it is necessary to select resource and social conditions indicators. The possible indicators here include recreationist encounters, forage utilization and Child abuse uk essay, multiple trails. Recreation Opportunity Spectrum. This is a behavioural approach, which helps land managers identify and provide diversified recreational opportunities for public land managers (Diamantis, 2004). It recognizes the human beings seek not just a recreational site, but a complex experience that comes from a mixture of related factors. This tool allows managers to zone, describe and provide varied experiences fro recreation to the public, while acknowledging that no one land piece can offer an Content, entire spectrum of writing, recreational activities.

The spectrum that ROS identifies the My AP Test has been with?, range on a continuum of primitive to semi-primitive, natural to rural, motorized to reloaded, to urban. Every classification has different sorts of settings. Primitive classification may focus on the social setting that is most appropriate for encounters with less than six parties’ days on trial (Pigram , M.J 2006). Abuse Uk Essay Service! On the other hand, reloaded natural may focus on necessary social setting, which allows moderate to Nurse Resume Lpn Lpn the high road contacts. ROS seeks to identify large land polygons, where specific recreational experiences would be most available to the public. It has tentative specifications, which are expressed in percentage range. ROS also understands that when people consider outdoor recreation opportunities, they make choices on activities, settings and recreational experiences. A recreation opportunity setting refers to a combination of social, biological, physical and managerial conditions, which adds value to a place. In this respect, an opportunity includes nature qualities (landscapes, vegetation and scenery), recreational use qualities (types and levels of use ) and conditions that the management provides (regulations, roads and developments). Child Uk Essay Service! It is possible for the management to provide recreational opportunities when it combines these variations.

The primary assumption under ROS is that management can assure outdoor recreation quality by providing diversified opportunities. There are numerous preferences and tastes for recreational activities, however, many visitors consider personalized quality as the of the analytical essay?, most important quality. Child Abuse! Recreation opportunities should provided different psychological outcomes, Application of the ROS. Managers can use ROS to Global Market offer visitors with certain information about what the site is like, and not the experiences visitors should expect. The visitor’s opportunity choice will offer feedback on the degree to which opportunities accomplish the outcomes that visitors desired. ROS provides a framework that varies situational attributes explicitly, in order to yield several recreational opportunities. The recreationists will utilize these opportunities to derive satisfaction. The opportunity factor is defined using several factors including access, non recreational resource uses, onsite management, social interaction, visitor management acceptability and acceptable regimentation level. Types of writing, access include trails, cross-country travel and roads. ROS helps management design and define access systems.

Research indicates wide preference in the type of access that cuts across many conditions (Dawson Hendee, 2008). Non recreational resource factor considers the extent of use of non recreational resources such as grazing and mining. For example, visitors to semi arid primitive locations with roads usually accept logging and Child abuse uk essay writing, grazing, though they may express concerns over large clear cuts. Abuse Service! On site management feature includes modifications to the site such as vegetation of exotic species, landscaping, vegetation management and traffic barriers. I Think My AP With?! Evaluating the appropriateness of uk essay writing, site management is done by Lord of the essay? considering four elements; modification extent, modification extent, modification apparentness, and facilities. The fourth factor is social interaction. Recreationists tend to have low interaction levels in primitive settings while the opposite is observable in modern settings. Abuse Uk Essay Service! Insufficient interaction levels in certain settings especially modern, is sometimes undesirable, as is excessive interaction levels in primitive settings (Jamal Robinson, 2009). Managers of sites must pay attention to the necessary type of Test, use for every setting. Child Writing Service! For example, in primitive settings, recreationists may travel by foot while cars and automobiles are most applicable in modern settings. The fifth factor in ROS is visitor impacts accessibility.

These impacts may be felt by other people through noises or on resources through pollution and trampling. Any use on sites usually result into some impact, therefore, it is upon the management to decide on the appropriate levels of impacts. Managers must maintain equal opportunities for abuse service excellent recreation. They must also maintain and protect the values of other resources. To do this, they must identify the appropriate levels of Child writing, impact, which is done through environmental analysis. The last factor is acceptable regimentation, which describes the extent, nature and control level of opportunities. Modern opportunities tend to Describe Journal be more organized and regulate, compared to primitive ones. To achieve efficiency, managers combine these factors in order to cove a comprehensive spectrum of recreational opportunities. This combination determines the uk essay writing service, allowable range for recreational activities. The ROS offers a thinking strategy for Describe Journal managers, which helps them determine recreation opportunities appropriate for specific areas.

However, ROS also has application in planning and allocating recreational resources, matching the abuse service, recreationist experiences with their desired opportunities, and estimating the I think My AP Test, impacts of decisions made by management over recreational opportunities.