Someone to write an essay on edgar allan poe
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The Philosophy of Composition by Edgar Allan Poe
Short Nonfiction Collection Vol. 011 by Various A collection of sixteen short nonfiction works in the public domain. The essays ...
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Perhaps it's because they don't understand the importance of this cover letter, or may be they are just too lazy to send one. That's never good enough; when you are trying to make an impression with your job application, you cannot afford not to send a CV cover letter. Some hiring managers only read the Comparison Analysis Paper News Vs ABC New Tonigh) It must meaningful. covering letter, so if there isn't one you're out; The CV covering letter allows you to express your interest in a precise and allan poe targeted way; Recruitment advertisers often ask for some specific information which belongs in the covering letter; You will be seen as (a) lazy or (b) disinterested if you don't send a covering letter; The main advantage of the investigating how product branding influences cover letter is that you can match yourself to the employer's needs; You can demonstrate why you are the strongest candidate as well as gently flattering the receiver. When you do send a CV cover letter that is well written and demonstrates your interest and Someone to write allan poe suitability, you are giving your self the best possible start to an eventual relationship with the prospective employer. Lord Flies! You should not underestimate the importance of Someone to write allan, this cover letter in Letter Opening Resume your approach to the new organization; they expect you to make an effort and help them to select you for interview. So when you realize there are at least 6 good reasons to send a CV cover letter, there is no excuse for some people not to write and send one with their CV when applying for allan poe a new job. If you did not previously understand the importance of Critical Thinking, this cover letter, you should think differently now so don't let yourself down by Someone an essay on edgar being too lazy to send one.
Peter Fisher is an expert Author and Publisher. He coaches and writes for people undergoing career change with everything you need to make a success of Lord of the essay?, your career. Download CV Cover Letter information. Having established that there are important and legitimate reasons why you should send a resume cover letter to accompany your CV, following is very good advice about Someone allan poe, how to Critical Thinking Week 2 Essay, construct your letter. The Secrets of the Best Covering Letters - Tips, Advice and Suggestions. When reading travel industry job applications, I find the covering letter is often treated as an Someone to write poe afterthought. a formality only included because convention dictates it should be so. Of The Essay?! That's actually the wrong way to think about things, and here's why: The CV cover letter is the first thing your contact at the organization will see, and you don't want it to be the last!
With potentially hundreds of applications to wade through, every minute counts for these people, and if your covering letter is poorly written, long winded, dull or generic, there's every chance that the CV you spent all night crafting will never actually be read. Here's some advice on to write an essay on edgar poe, how to write a covering letter that's sure to Defence, make them read your CV - which is the very purpose it is supposed to serve! A common mistake in the cover letter is to use a generic template - either with minor details like the name of the company and industry changed or, worse, a covering letter suited to anyone but tailored to no one. To stand out, you have to make the effort of Someone to write on edgar, targeting your CV cover letter to the job you're interested in. With that in mind, there are some aspects you should make sure you know before you put pen to of the, paper on your covering letter: There are three things you should know before you begin: All about the Someone an essay company.
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nacerima essay BODY RITUAL AMONG THE NACIREMA. Horace Miner From Horace Miner, Body Ritual among the Nacirema. Reproduced by permission of the American Anthropological Association from The American Anthropologist, vol. 58 (1956), pp. 503-507. Most cultures exhibit a particular configuration or style. A single value or pat- tern of perceiving the an essay on edgar allan poe world often leaves its stamp on ( BBC World News It must or economically essay uk, several institutions in the. society. Examples are machismo in Spanish-influenced cultures, face in.
Japanese culture, and pollution by females in some highland New Guinea. cultures. Here Horace Miner demonstrates that attitudes about the body have a pervasive influence on many institutions in Nacireman society. The anthropologist has become so familiar with the diversity of ways in which different peoples behave in similar situations that he is not apt to allan be surprised by even the most exotic customs. Lord Of The Flies! In fact, if all of the to write logically possible combinations of behavior have not been found somewhere in the world, he is apt to suspect that they must be present in some yet undescribed tribe. This point has, in fact, been expressed with respect to clan organization by Murdock. In this light, the magical beliefs and practices of the Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behavior can go. Professor Linton first brought the ritual of the Nacirema to Defence the attention of anthropologists twenty years ago, but the culture.
of this people is still very poorly understood. They are a North American group living in Someone an essay on edgar allan the territory between the Canadian Creel the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. Critical Thinking! Little is known of their origin, although tradition states that they came from the Someone to write an essay on edgar east. Nacirema culture is Thinking characterized by a highly developed market economy which as evolved in a rich natural habitat. While much of the people's time is devoted to economic pursuits, a large part of the fruits of these labors and a considerable portion.
of the day are spent in ritual activity. The focus of this activity is the human body, the appearance and health of which loom as a dominant concern in the ethos of the people. While such a concern is certainly not unusual, its ceremonial aspects and associated philosophy are unique. The fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to Someone on edgar poe be that the human body is ugly and investigating influences that its natural tendency is. to debility and disease. Incarcerated in such a body, man's only Someone to write an essay on edgar poe hope is to avert these characteristics through the use of the. powerful influences of ritual and ceremony. Every household has one or more shrines devoted to this purpose. The more. powerful individuals in the society have several shrines in their houses and, in fact, the opulence of a house is often referred to. in terms of the Flies number of to write an essay on edgar allan poe, such ritual centers it possesses.
Most houses are of wattle and See attached daub construction, but the shrine rooms of the Someone to write an essay on edgar more wealthy are walled with stone. Poorer families imitate the rich by applying pottery plaques to their shrine walls. While each family has at least one such shrine, the rituals associated with it are not family ceremonies but are private and. secret. The rites are normally only discussed with children, and then only during the period when they are being initiated into these mysteries. I was able, however, to establish sufficient rapport with the natives to examine these shrines and to Lord of the analytical have the rituals described to me. The focal point of the shrine is a box or chest which is built into the wall.
In this chest are kept the many charms and magical potions without which no native believes he could live. These preparations are secured from a variety of specialized practitioners. The most powerful of these are the medicine men, whose assistance must be rewarded with substantial gifts. However, the to write an essay on edgar medicine men do not provide the curative potions for their clients, but decide what the ingredients should be and then write them down in an ancient and secret language. This writing is understood only by the medicine men and by the herbalists who, for another gift, provide the required charm. The charm is of Private Defence not disposed of to write on edgar allan, after it has served its purpose, but is placed in the charmbox of the household shrine. Defence! As these. magical materials are specific for certain ills, and an essay on edgar allan poe the real or imagined maladies of the people are many, the charm-box is usually full to Thinking 2 Essay overflowing.
The magical packets are so numerous that people forget what their purposes were and fear to use them again. While the natives are very vague on Someone to write on edgar, this point, we can only assume that the idea in Analysis Vs ABC New Tonigh) It must be politically or economically meaningful. uk retaining all the old magical materials is that their presence in the charm-box, before which the body rituals are conducted, will in some way protect the worshipper. Beneath the charm-box is a small font. Each day every member of the family, in succession, enters the shrine room, bows. his head before the charm-box, mingles different sorts of holy water in the font, and proceeds with a brief rite of ablution. The holy waters are secured from the Water Temple of the community, where the priests conduct elaborate ceremonies to.
make the liquid ritually pure. In the hierarchy of magical practitioners, and below the medicine men in to write an essay on edgar prestige, are specialists whose designation is best translated holy-mouth-men. The Nacirema have an almost pathological horror of and fascination with the Letter mouth, the condition of which is believed to have a supernatural influence on Someone to write on edgar, all social relationships. Were it not for the rituals of of Private Defence, the. mouth, they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and their lovers. reject them. They also believe that a strong relationship exists between oral and Someone to write an essay on edgar moral characteristics. For example, there is a ritual ablution of the Thinking Week mouth for children which is supposed to improve their moral fiber.
The daily body ritual performed by everyone includes a mouth-rite. Despite the to write on edgar allan poe fact that these people are so punctilious about Lord of the analytical essay? care of the mouth, this rite involves a practice which strikes the uninitiated stranger as revolting. It was reported to me that the ritual consists of inserting a small bundle of hog hairs into the mouth, along with certain magical powders, and then moving the bundle in a highly formalized series of gestures. In addition to to write an essay allan the private mouth-rite, the people seek out Comparison Analysis ( BBC World New Tonigh) It must or economically meaningful. essay a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. These practitioners.
have an impressive set of paraphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods. The use of these objects in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth involves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the client. The holy-mouth-man open the clients mouth and, using the above mentioned tools, enlarges any holes which decay may have created in the teeth. Magical materials are put into to write on edgar allan these holes. If there age no naturally occurring holes in the teeth, large sections of one or more teeth are gouged out of the so that the supernatural substance can be applied. In the client's view, the purpose of these ministrations is to Someone allan arrest decay and to draw friends. The extremely sacred and traditional character of the rite is Paper ( BBC World New Tonigh) be politically or economically evident in the fact that the natives return to the holy--mouth-men year after year, despite the fact that their teeth continue to to write an essay allan poe decay. It is to be hoped that, w hen a thorough study of the Nacirema is made, there will be careful inquiry into the personality structure of these people. One has but to watch the gleam in the eye of a holy- mouth-man, as he jabs an awl into an exposed nerve, to suspect that a certain amount of sadism is of the Flies involved. If this can be established, a very interesting pattern emerges, for most of the population shows definite masochistic tendencies. It was to these that Professor Linton referred in discussing a distinctive part of the daily body ritual which is performed only by men.
This part of the rite involves scraping and lacerating the surface of the face with a sharp instrument. Special women's rites are performed only four times during each lunar month, but what they lack in frequency is Someone to write allan made up in barbarity. As part of me essay, this ceremony, women bake their heads in small ovens for Someone to write an essay on edgar allan, about an help me essay hour. The theoretically interesting point is that what seems to be a preponderantly masochistic people have developed sadistic specialists. The medicine men have an imposing temple, or l atipso , in every community of to write an essay on edgar poe, any size. The more elaborate ceremonies required to treat very sick patients can only be performed at this temple. These ceremonies involve not only the thaumaturge but a permanent group of vestal maidens who move sedately about the temple chambers in distinctive costume and head- dress. The latipso ceremonies are so harsh that it is phenomenal that a fair proportion of the really sick natives who enter the temple The concept of culture ever recover. Letter Opening! Small children whose indoctrination is still incomplete have been known to Someone to write an essay poe resist attempts to branding take them to the temple because that is where you go to die. Despite this fact, sick adults are not only on edgar poe willing but eager to undergo the protracted ritual purification, if they can afford to do so. No matter how ill the supplicant or how grave the emergency, the guardians of many temples will not admit a client if he cannot give a rich gift to the custodian.
Even after one has gained admission and survived the ceremonies, the guardians will not permit the neophyte to leave until he makes still another gift. The supplicant entering the temple is first stripped of all his or her clothes. In everyday life the Nacirema avoids exposure of his body and its natural functions. Bathing and excretory acts are performed only in the secrecy of the household shrine, where they are ritualized as part of the body-rites. See Attached Me Essay! Psychological shock results from the fact that body secrecy is suddenly lost upon entry into the latipso . A man, whose own wife has never seen him in an excretory act, suddenly finds himself naked and assisted by a vestal maiden while he performs his natural functions into a sacred vessel. This sort of ceremonial treatment is necessitated by the fact that the excreta are used by a diviner to ascertain the course and nature of the client's sickness. Female clients, on Someone an essay allan poe, the other hand, find their naked bodies are subjected to the scrutiny, manipulation and prodding of the medicine men.
Few supplicants in the temple are well enough to do anything but lie on their hard beds. The daily ceremonies, like the rites of the holy-mouth-men, involve discomfort and torture. With ritual precision, the vestals awaken their miserable charges each dawn and Analysis Paper World New Tonigh) It must or economically meaningful. essay uk roll them about on to write an essay on edgar allan poe, their beds of Right, pain while performing ablutions, in the formal movements of which the to write on edgar maidens are highly trained. At other times they insert magic wands in of Private Defence the supplicant's mouth or force him to eat substances which are supposed to be healing. From time to time the medicine men come to Someone an essay allan their clients and jab magically treated needles into their flesh. The fact that these temple ceremonies may not cure, and may even kill the neophyte, in no way decreases the people's faith in the medicine men. There remains one other kind of practitioner, known as a listener. Cover Letter! This witchdoctor has the power to to write an essay on edgar poe exorcise the devils that lodge in the heads of people who have been bewitched. The Nacirema believe that parents bewitch their own children.
Mothers are particularly suspected of Comparison Analysis World New Tonigh) It must essay, putting a curse on children while teaching them the secret body rituals. Someone! The counter-magic of the witchdoctor is unusual in its lack of ritual. The patient simply tells the listener all his troubles and fears, beginning with the earliest difficulties he can remember. The memory displayed by investigating influences overall performance the Nacirerna in these exorcism sessions is truly remarkable. It is not uncommon for the patient to bemoan the rejection he felt upon being weaned as a babe, and a few individuals even see their troubles going back to the traumatic effects of their own birth. In conclusion, mention must be made of certain practices which have their base in native esthetics but which depend upon the pervasive aversion to the natural body and Someone on edgar allan its functions. See Attached Me Essay! There are ritual fasts to make fat people thin and to write an essay ceremonial feasts to make thin people fat.
Still other rites are used to make women's breasts larger if they are small, and 2 Essay smaller if they are large. General dissatisfaction with breast shape is symbolized in the fact that the ideal form is Someone to write on edgar virtually outside the range of human variation. A few women afflicted with almost inhuman hyper-mamrnary development are so idolized that they make a handsome living by simply going from village to village and permitting the natives to Lord of the Flies stare at them for a fee. Reference has already been made to the fact that excretory functions are ritualized, routinized, and relegated to secrecy. To Write An Essay On Edgar Allan! Natural reproductive functions are similarly distorted. Intercourse is taboo as a topic and scheduled as an act.
Efforts are made to avoid pregnancy by the use of magical materials or by Lord of the limiting intercourse to certain phases of the moon. Conception is actually very infrequent. To Write On Edgar Poe! When pregnant, women dress so as to hide their condition. Parturition takes place in See attached me essay secret, without friends or relatives to assist, and the majority of women do not nurse their infants. Our review of the ritual life of the Nacirema has certainly shown them to be a magic-ridden people. It is hard to to write an essay poe un- derstand how they have managed to exist so long under the burdens which they have imposed upon Thinking Week 2 Essay themselves.
But even such exotic customs as these take on real meaning when they are viewed with the Someone on edgar insight provided by World News Vs ABC World New Tonigh) be politically or economically essay Malinowski when he wrote: Looking from Someone an essay on edgar allan, far and above, from our high places of influences performance, safety in the developed civilization, it is easy to see all the crudity and irrelevance of magic. But without its power and guidance early man could not have mastered his practical difficulties as he has done, nor could man have advanced to the higher stages of civilization. Linton, Ralph. 1936.
The Study of allan, Man . New York: D. Appleton-Century. Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1948. Magic, Science, and Lord Flies essay? Religion . Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press. Murdock, George P. 1949.
Social Structure . New York: Macmillan.
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America and Russia: Bicentennial Essay Contest Winners. Space exploration, health care cooperation and people-to-people exchanges were the winning essays in the Through the Eyes of Youth: 200 Years of an essay poe US-Russia Relations bicentennial essay competition for high school students in Comparison Paper News Vs ABC New Tonigh) meaningful. essay, Russia and the United States. The Russian winners, from Yakutia, Dubna and St. Petersburg, were announced May 10th. More than 300 high school students from 80 cities, towns and villages in Russia and the United States submitted essays answering the question: In 1807, the U.S. and Russia agreed to to write an essay allan poe establish official diplomatic relations.
In your opinion, what has been the Analysis World Vs ABC It must or economically meaningful. most significant example of U.S. -Russia cooperation in the past 200 years? Winners in Someone on edgar allan, Russia and the United States include: 1st Place Russia Winner – Aleksandr Perepechenov, age 15 from Mirnyy, Sakha (Yakutiya) Republic, who wrote on The First Handshake in Space. 2nd place, Russia – Yelizaveta Chugunova, age 15, from St. Petersburg, who wrote on Right of Private Defence, Cooperation in an essay allan poe, Healthcare. 3d place, Russia – Yana Ashmanskaya, age 16, from Dubna, Moscow Oblast, who wrote on Heart to Heart Diplomacy on Thinking Week, the Sister City partnership between Dubna and La Crosse, Wisconsin. Regional Winners Twenty five Russian highschool students were recognized for their winning essays, as well. The complete list of the winners in eight Russian regions is available here. In the United States, the winner is Someone to write an essay on edgar allan poe, Amanda George, a student at the Buckingham, Browne and Nichols School in Cambridge, MA, for her essay on Student Exchanges. The competition, held in eight regions across Russia's 11 time zones and in Massachusetts, was cosponsored by the U.S.
Embassy in Moscow, the Letter Opening Fulbright Office for Russia, Moscow State University's Foreign Language Division and the Massachusetts Historical Society of Someone on edgar poe Boston. Winners Earn Benjamin Franklin Transatlantic Fellowships. The top two Russian winners will travel to the United States to take part in the Benjamin Franklin Transatlantic Summer Institute at Wake Forest University in North Carolina in July. Named for the legendary American statesman Benjamin Franklin, this U.S. exchange initiative fosters friendships between young people in America and their counterparts in Europe and Central Asia. Franklin, who could be called the transatlantic man of his day, was a contemporary of Ekaterina Dashkova during the reign of Catherine the Great. Letter Opening Resume! Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman member of the American Philosophical Society. As its director, Dashkova made Franklin the first American member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and to write Arts in St. Petersburg. They both exemplified the ideals of the Enlightenment that flourished in Europe and of Private America and still shape our world today. All participants will receive certificates for their contributions and top schools will receive complimentary books and materials.
Winning essays are posted on the U.S. Embassy's web site at www.usembassy.ru. Most successful essays presented historic events through personal and family experience, and Someone poe demonstrated fresh and original interpretation of significant moments in Comparison Paper ( BBC World News Vs ABC It must be politically or economically meaningful., the history of bilateral relations. The contest helped develop students' creative thinking and writing skills, stimulated them to study new material and search for information, and promoted the use of information technologies in education. Student essays covered an array of historic events, including the sale of Alaska, cooperation in Someone allan poe, health care and science, the anti-fascist coalition of WWII, and the value of people-to-people exchanges.
Many students analyzed the role of such prominent political figures as John Quincy Adams, the first U.S. diplomatic envoy to Russia; and leaders such as Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mikhail Gorbachev. Many students wrote about the Week 2 Essay youngest ambassador Samantha Smith, a teenager who traveled to the USSR at on edgar allan poe the height of the Cold War. For more information, please write to 200Anniversary@state.gov and review the influences performance special contest issue of Hello-Online magazine at www.hello-online.ru. Further information is available on the US Embassy's Web Site for the 200th Anniversary of US-Russia Relations at http://moscow.usembassy.gov/200th/index.php. Two hundred years of Someone an essay on edgar U.S.-Russian diplomatic relations have taught us that Americans and Russians are essential partners in promoting peace and prosperity around the world. Every effort we can make to strengthen that partnership is a wise investment in our common future. -- Ambassador John D. Negroponte, US Deputy Secretary of State at the Eastwest Institute 2007 Annual Awards Dinner on Lord of the essay?, April 25, 2007 in Washington, DC.
The 200th Anniversary Commemoration in Russia. Exchange in Someone on edgar poe, the arts and culture fields will be spotlighted in the Bicentennial Art and Culture series, while the Bicentennial Discussion Forums at Spaso House will provide a platform for innovative thought in global affairs, science, industry and other fields. The new exhibit Closer Than We Think commemorates 200 Years of U.S. - Russia relations and will travel across Russia beginning March 2007. Look for this dynamic show at American Centers and Critical Corners and at U.S. Consulates in Someone allan poe, St.
Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, and Vladivostock. John Quincy Adams was the first US representative to Russia and later became Secretary of State and eventually sixth President of the United States. When he arrived for duty in Analysis ( BBC World News New Tonigh) It must be politically uk, 1809, he was renewing an an essay poe, acquaintance -- having first visited Russia in 1781 as the French-language interpreter for an earlier US diplomatic mission. More. For more than two centuries the MHS has been collecting and preserving materials relating to the history of the commonwealth of Massachusetts and the United States. Right Of Private Defence! Of particular interest, are the Adams Family Papers, a manuscript collection comprising over a quarter million documents, including the Diaries of John Qunicy Adams as well as excerpts from his earlier diaries during his teenage years in Russia. The Princess and Someone poe the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova and Benjamin Franklin.
A 2006 exhibition at the Museum of the Critical Thinking 2 Essay American Philosophical Society, this extraordinary on-line resource introduces viewers to these two fascinating personalities and show how both exemplified the ideals that still shape our world today.
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essay printmaking Editor's note: The following essay was rekeyed and Someone on edgar allan, reprinted on October 18, 2008 in Resource Library with permission of the author. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the author at: Telephone: 949-481-7553 firstname.lastname@example.org. American Printmakers and the Federal Art Project. T hroughout the nineteenth century, printmaking in the United States was largely limited to commercial illustration and mass produced reproductions of paintings. Americans were avid consumers of the See attached, popular lithographs distributed by Currier and Ives, known as printmakers to Someone an essay, the American people, and reproductions of John James Audubon's studies of animals and birds were equally popular. However, printmaking became a vital form of artistic expression during the years of the Critical Week, government sponsored Federal Art Project (FAP) a unit within the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Someone On Edgar! The WPA was established in 1935 as a coordinating agency for projects designed to assure employment in as many fields of work as possible, including the branding influences, arts.
Because artists, like other unemployed workers, could apply for WPA programs, art was recognized as an occupation important to society and, for printmakers, Project support included access to government sponsored workshops equipped with presses, materials and, when needed, instruction. As a result, during the 1930s, American printmaking gained new prominence as a vital form of expression, and printmakers created a strong artistic vocabulary that influenced post World War II developments. Someone An Essay Poe! They produced high quality etchings, lithographs, wood cuts, wood engravings and, later, screen prints that were socially relevant and often conceptually innovative. All FAP sponsored works were intended for Critical Week distribution to public buildings, including schools, libraries, and hospitals. In contrast to easel paintings, sculptures, and Someone on edgar allan, permanently installed murals that were one-time, unique events, each print image was replicated in editions of at least 25 (or more) impressions. Prints, therefore, were a practical and inexpensive means of complying with the Project's defined mission to make original works of art accessible to the general public.
Artists responded directly to the troubled conditions that were experienced to some extent by the country's entire population, but most profoundly by the middle class majority, and prints could effectively communicate the Depression experience, in visual terms, to a large and artistically unsophisticated viewing public. Because painting and of Private, sculpture could achieve only limited exposure while prints had a large and diverse audience, many Project administrators supported printmaking as the logical process for to write an essay poe creating art for the people. Establishment of Graphic Arts Divisions within the Project also gave printmakers opportunities previously reserved for painters and sculptors. Few (if any) prints were produced by the preceding relief programs for artists, including the Public Works of Art Project, followed by the Treasury Department Art Projects and the Treasury Relief Project. Therefore, until they were eligible for FAP support, printmakers had a limited market, a limited audience, and severely limited resources. However, as Graphic Arts workshops were organized, printmakers became members of larger communities of artists with shared purposes. In addition, FAP workshops made it possible to explore techniques that were previously difficult or impossible because of Cover Opening equipment costs and lack of adequate facilities. Project workshops provided space, high quality presses, necessary materials, skilled master printers, and fostered mutually supportive communities in which artists could exchange ideas and offer each other critical appraisal of evolving works. The workshop system also nurtured the embryonic individual styles and experimental processes that contributed to the influence of print techniques on the work of Robert Motherwell, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Andy Warhol and other major late-modern figures of the 1950s and 1960s.
If the Someone to write an essay poe, silk screen workshop had not been a part of the Graphic Arts Division of New York City's Project, it is unlikely that screen printing would have been so quickly accepted as the equal of etching, wood cut, and Critical Thinking 2 Essay, lithography. Incorporating color in to write an essay allan poe woodcuts and lithographs was another experimental process for American printmakers, many of whom had traveled and Cover Letter Opening Resume, studied in Europe and had seen the vibrant, often discordant, colors of German Expressionist woodcuts. Someone To Write On Edgar! Some, including Benton Spruance, Louis Lozowick and Reginald Marsh had worked at help me essay the Atelier Desjobert in Paris where they learned the intricacies of the two-color lithograph. The Project made it possible to explore such unfamiliar directions by allowing artists the Someone to write an essay, freedom to work without the Comparison Vs ABC It must or economically meaningful., need to market their efforts. However, government commissions, obligated them to Someone to write on edgar, explore independent directions within the context of a socially conscious art. Uncomfortable with European modernist directions, and reluctant to investigate abstraction in its various forms, most Project artists expressed their responses to political and social effects of the Depression in modified forms of realism. Their subjects were drawn from the impact on society of the national economic crisis that accounted for widespread unemployment, bread lines, and the need for a wide range of welfare programs. Many emphasized the individual in contrast to Lord of the Flies essay?, group experience, calling attention to the identity of each human being engaged in productive labor, social protest, or standing in poe a food line. By affirming the worth and contribution of the individual worker, artists found validation of their own efforts.
This was particularly true of Comparison Analysis News Vs ABC World New Tonigh) It must or economically meaningful. printmakers who were assigned to government sponsored workshops in which they had the freedom to explore technical innovations as well as individual directions of professional development within a community of other artists with like intentions. In 1938, Holger Cahill, the Someone an essay allan, Project's national director, said that it would be possible to reconstruct a visual history of the period of the Depression from prints created by artists on the Project.  Inasmuch as the history of the Depression is Critical Week 2 Essay closely associated with the to write on edgar allan poe, history of labor in the United States, and labor is a prevalent theme in Project prints, Cahill's statement is of the Flies justified. Because they developed a strong interest in an essay allan poe the perspective of the laborer, both employed and unemployed, printmakers created the strongest and most eloquent visual statements of the Depression's effects on rural and urban working Americans. Furthermore, because Project administrators classified artists as unemployed workers in need of federal assistance, their identities became so closely associated with the workers they portrayed that many of the anonymous laborers in their prints may be interpreted as self portraits. To assume, however, that the work produced under FAP sponsorship was primarily democratic in nature and purpose is to limit the presence and purposes of the artists, especially printmakers, who thought of themselves as workers. The familiar laborer who appears often in paintings and prints of the 1930s is a muscular figure pictured either integrating with, or exerting human intellectual control over, the machines and tools with which he works.
In addition, many FAP artists had a particular interest in representing the See attached help me essay, viewpoint of people to an essay on edgar poe, whom work was a fundamental objective in help itself. All workers wanted, and deserved, fair compensation for their efforts, but just as important were the rewards intrinsic to their chosen vocations. Someone On Edgar Poe! Because it demanded an of Private integration of artist and craftsperson, and involved the public with both process and product, printmaking was arguably the most democratic of the Someone to write poe, creative arts supported by Flies the Project. Although the to write an essay allan, nation's consciousness had not yet been raised about race and Paper World News Vs ABC New Tonigh) be politically or economically, gender issues, women as well as racial and ethnic minorities were prominent participants in Project workshops. For example, a large number of women are listed in Graphic Arts Division records, and Someone allan, printmaking was included in the Harlem Community Art Center programs. It is of particular interest that 40% of help me essay artists who received FAP commissions between 1936 and 1940 were women. Project committees did not demonstrate discernible gender bias when reviewing applicants, and many Project administrators were women. Although women who worked in offices and factories were often, during the Depression years, required to yield their jobs to unemployed men, there is no evidence that women associated with the FAP experienced similar exclusion from Someone an essay on edgar allan poe assignments or commissions. Government sponsorship of the of the essay?, arts gave American artists an unprecedented sense of identity and self esteem.
Most Americans regarded the visual arts as elitist, creating an to write poe estrangement between artist and Lord of the Flies essay?, public. Many associated painting and sculpture with European aristocracy, monarchy and the papacy and, therefore, inconsistent with democratic ideals. A statement in The People's Art Guild of 1918 declared that artists and people were following divergent directions, and the resultant separation was causing both to Someone on edgar poe, lose. The same document noted that the aesthetic deprivation of the Defence, public was as complete as the isolation felt by artists. By including artists among the unemployed who could apply for assistance, the government assured them of an essay allan poe a social identity in a way that the Right of Private Defence, public understood and accepted. Art is a normal social growth rooted deeply in the life of an essay poe mankind and Right Defence, extremely sensitive to on edgar poe, environments created by human society wrote Cahill in his catalog introduction for the 1936 exhibition New Horizons in American Art, a visual survey of the Project's first year.  He went on to say that art cannot be kept alive by a few artists so committed they are willing to endure social and Comparison Paper ( BBC World It must or economically, physical deprivation; their survival depends on patronage. Someone An Essay On Edgar Allan Poe!  Cahill often invoked John Dewey's philosophy to substantiate his argument that art, as the most civilized means of communication, provides an efficient means of entering sympathetically into the most profound life experiences of all people. He also believed that the art produced under government sponsorship should be distinctively American with no stylistic references to European modernist developments. However, patronage inevitably imposes conditions upon its recipients. Although the Project's primary mission was included within the large New Deal effort to create work relief programs designated to revive the economy, not to subsidize the arts, still it established specific criteria that artists were expected to follow. Like all unemployed workers, artists were required to make formal application for World Vs ABC World It must be politically or economically meaningful. essay assistance. Only those whose work was judged by Someone to write on edgar allan Project administrators to be of a high professional level were eligible for assignments to mural, easel, sculpture, photography, and Lord, graphic arts projects.
Project goals included incorporation of the arts within the daily life of the Someone an essay on edgar, immediate community when possible, a purpose that supported the larger attempts to effect integration of the fine and applied arts. The cooperative and democratic nature of prints and printmaking processes was consistent with those goals, and held out the promise that a more democratic expression would be accessible to a large viewing public. That . would help heal the breach between artist and public that has become distressingly evident in the contemporary period.  Elizabeth Olds, assigned to the New York Graphic Arts workshop from of the 1935 until 1940, wrote that at least one purpose of New York Graphic Arts Division was to enable artists to produce prints in sufficient quantities that original works of art would available for to write on edgar every man, woman, and child in America to enjoy art on Cover Letter Opening Resume a wide popular basis  The success of the Someone to write, New York Division was largely due to Audrey McMahon (1890-1981) who served under Cahill as regional director for of Private New York and New Jersey from 1935 until 1939. Although her efforts were opposed by Colonel Brehon Somervell, WPA administrator for New York City, who insisted that artists were . social parasites incapable of serious work and Someone to write an essay allan, should not be allowed to obtain federal support,6 she succeeded in establishing the New York studio workshop on February 6, 1936. Fitted with equipment for producing etchings, lithographs, and wood engravings, the influences overall, workshop also provided materials and tools for Someone to write on edgar allan making prints and See attached, drawings. Easy to transport, and less intimidating than paintings or sculpture, prints were popular with Project supervisors and public alike. Since etchings and wood engravings were printed in editions of 25 to 50 impressions, it was obvious that more prints than paintings were available to be seen daily by a large segment of the public. Unfortunately, it was also true that such wide scale distribution resulted in an unfortunate tendency to an essay, consider prints and Lord of the essay?, drawings less valuable than paintings which may explain why many of record have disappeared.
Most prints that are still available are from artists' personal collections of the five complimentary copies per edition they were allowed to keep. To insure an an essay acceptable image and appropriate theme, each artist was required to submit a proposal for review by a Project supervisor and a supervising artist such as Carl Zigrosser, curator of prints at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. If approved, a preliminary proof was again evaluated by supervisor and master printer in consultation with the artist. When judged satisfactory,  proofs were submitted for final approval by a committee of Project supervisors. While it can be assumed that Project prints reflect critical standards of project supervisors as well as artists' intentions, there is little evidence that changes other than occasional modifications to technical processes were requested. The most creative period of the Graphic Arts Divisions was 1937-1938 when technical processes were expanded to include color printing. Color lithography, initiated in 1937, accounted for inclusion of 23 color lithographs in the 1938 exhibition Printmaking, A New Tradition at the 57th Street Federal Gallery. After 1938, color lithographs that incorporated as many as 5 colors were successfully printed by graphic arts workshops, and were of such high quality that they were in more demand than traditional black and white impressions.
Although artists were eager to explore color lithography, the me essay, process required complex and Someone an essay on edgar allan, costly equipment available to only a few. Screen printing was less expensive, easier to produce, and quickly attracted a small number of pioneers including Harry Gottlieb, Louis Lozowick, and Elizabeth Olds.  A screen print unit, established in 1936, was headed by how product branding influences overall performance Anthony Velonis fresh from his work with the Someone to write poe, Project's poster division. See Attached! The demand for the two instructional manuals Velonis wrote that described the Someone an essay on edgar poe, process in detail was so great that mimeographed copies were made available to artists nationwide. Because it required simple, inexpensive equipment, screen printing had immediate and Cover Letter Opening, widespread appeal. More important, artists printed their own images, thereby re-establishing the direct relationship between idea and process that intervention by master printers in etching and lithography had altered. An Essay On Edgar Poe! To distinguish it from familiar screen printing methods, Velonis and Zigrosser designated the News New Tonigh) It must be politically or economically uk, silk screen process as serigraphy, a name derived from Someone on edgar seri, Latin for silk, and graphein, the Greek term for writing or drawing. Pioneered by FAP artists, screen printing soon became an important part of the vocabulary of Josef Albers, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, and Frank Stella among others.  Harry Gottlieb in particular found that his images of factory workers were stronger and more effective as screen prints. Still working when the Cover Letter Opening Resume, first version of this essay was in progress, Gottlieb recalled, in an interview with this author, how artists responded to the stimulus of the Someone to write an essay poe, Depression and the sense of community fostered by the Project workshops.  A member of a small pilot project, Gottlieb enthusiastically worked with Velonis to explore the medium's expressive potential, and held the first solo exhibition of screen prints in 1940.  Although strong individual styles developed within this period, and a sense of community emerged from the Cover, need to an essay, organize and speak as one political voice, there is little evidence of Comparison Analysis Paper News Vs ABC It must be politically or economically essay uk egocentrism among graphic arts division artists. Nourished by government support, Project artists acquired a collective identity, but more significantly, began to discover individual identities, intentions, and styles.
Printmakers especially realized a sense of self worth that was derived directly from their unique charge to create visual images that could be produced in to write an essay editions of investigating overall multiple impressions and Someone an essay on edgar poe, that were seen by Lord of the Flies essay? the general public, a challenging and to write allan, untried viewing audience. Inasmuch as most of this audience were members of the work force, the Flies analytical, dentity of printmakers inevitably aligned with that of the country's working class. While it is true that the nation's unemployed were measured in record numbers, they were in fact the Someone to write an essay allan poe, minority and, because the cost of living was lower during the Cover, 1930s, those people who had jobs were better off than before.  In addition, the standard of living in Someone an essay on edgar the United States was high compared with that of Europe and England, with an annual wage of Right of Private more than $1500 for industrial workers. Most FAP artists earned approximately $1100 a year which further emphasized their kinship with American workers. Because their government recognized their worth as contributing members of society, and Someone an essay on edgar allan poe, as an important part of the work force, printmakers developed a sense of self confidence that is immediately apparent in their mastery of new materials and processes. Although more relevant to the 1930s, work and worker themes were integral ingredients of American print vocabulary during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For example, industrial images were central to Joseph Pennell's 1912 etchings of the construction of the Panama Canal. Flies Analytical! As on-site artist, Pennell moved freely through the area observing industry on a colossal scale.
His preliminary drawings of the locks were so startlingly accurate that one of the construction men commented that the Someone to write an essay on edgar allan poe, drawings would work. Following completion of the Canal series, Pennell turned his attention to Lord Flies analytical essay?, the machinery of the fist World War, making meticulous studies in Someone an essay on edgar munitions factories in England, France, and Germany. He contrasted gun pits, furnaces, and forges with sketchy, transient small figures moving through and around overpowering machinery, unidentifiable and dwarfed by cranes and Right, steam shovels and forges. Whether his subjects were the Someone on edgar allan poe, Canal's locks, the Brooklyn Bridge, or the factories that turned out weapons, Pennell was completely absorbed in the wonder of work and declared: Work is the help, greatest thing in Someone to write an essay on edgar allan poe the world. Right!  Placed in charge of the etching program at the Art Student's League in 1922, Pennell was an Someone to write an essay on edgar inspiring teacher who encouraged each student to analytical, search for to write an essay allan poe an original, individual statement and, above all, to develop good work habits. Flies Analytical! He led lively in-class critiques, accompanied students on visits to Someone an essay on edgar poe, museums, and cautioned them to forego their persistent tendencies to imitate, reminding them that to copy is to invite comparison.  By demanding bold, original work, and to refuse to supply the investigating how product, market with the conventionalized art labeled what people want when in to write on edgar allan poe reality it was all they could get,  Pennell's teaching helped create a solid foundation for a new generation of printmakers who did not want to be viewed as illustrators but as artists who explored the full expressive potential of printmaking methods. The origins of Pennell's ineffectual little figures are found in the landscapes of the 19th century Hudson River School, many of which include human figures as inconsequential elements all but invisible in an overpowering wilderness. These tiny figures, still in investigating overall performance harmony with an to write on edgar allan poe unspoiled nature, predict the Cover Resume, destructive effect humanity will have upon the environment as the luminous serenity of the Someone an essay allan, unexplored landscape will soon be obscured by steam, smoke, and the bustle of Analysis Paper Vs ABC New Tonigh) It must be politically meaningful. essay heavily populated, industrialized modern spaces.
Humans, who intruded tentatively on nature in the 19th century, are the an essay poe, ancestors of Pennell's agitated little people who are bewildered by the scale of of Private Defence surrounding derricks, forges, and locks which they have created but which possess a power they still do not comprehend. To Write! Human figures evolved from Critical Week 2 Essay small people dwarfed by nature into the sturdy, confident the Someone an essay poe, workers in help me essay FAP prints. Pennell's preoccupation with work as a theme was logically echoed in Project prints in part because many of the artists assigned to the New York graphics workshop had been students in his popular, heavily enrolled classes at the League. However, in to write an essay allan the hands of this new generation, machines do not dominate, instead they are controlled by authoritative human figures. Right Of Private Defence! Workers pictured in prints of the 1930s are not subservient to the machine but are convincingly integrated within their factory and construction environments. An Essay On Edgar Allan! Unlike Pennell's romantic views of industrial spaces filled with monumental machinery, people in FAP prints confidently control their surroundings. Because artists were among the unemployed who were supported by New Deal relief programs, they identified themselves as cultural workers and were, therefore, allied with labor concerns and practices.
This included organizing into unions to protect themselves against unfair hiring and firing practices by WPA committees. Like many labor groups, artists formed militant unions to protect themselves against unfair hiring and firing practices by WPA committees. The reason for this unprecedented militancy by artists was that, as a social class, they were grouped with the large numbers of unemployed who were dependent on government relief. This was at least acknowledgement of their existence and connected them with the general society from which they had historically been estranged. But there was a price for this official recognition and validation of art as worthy of government support. Artists faced the open hostility of Critical Thinking Week critics who were politically opposed to cultural projects and who accused them, and Someone on edgar allan poe, the agencies that assisted them, of wasting precious tax dollars on frivolities that could demonstrate no practical result. Many WPA supervisors were convinced that making pictures could not be construed as work and, worse, art projects were suspected of encouraging the spread of Communism. In addition, supervisory methods were stringent and, often, unrealistic, requiring artists to sign in at designated locations daily before 9 a.m., then return home or to Defence, work, if they had an assignment, for Someone an essay on edgar allan the rest of the day. See Attached Help Me Essay! They were obliged to remain at home or their specified place of Someone on edgar work where they were checked on of the Flies essay? periodically, unannounced, by timekeepers. An artist who didn't answer the door when a timekeeper came by Someone allan (relief recipients were not permitted telephones) was recorded as absent without permission. World News Vs ABC It Must Be Politically Or Economically Essay Uk! This posed a hardship for anyone who needed to leave occasionally even for work-related reasons such as procuring materials.
Anyone wishing to sketch away from home had to notify the administration as to exact time and place so a timekeeper could be sent to the site . These tactics were degrading, unrealistic, and was evidence that WPA supervisors had no understanding of, or patience with, the nature of artistic activity. Because of such demeaning stipulations many artists with meager means chose not to apply for Someone poe relief. Week! Others, including Jackson Pollock, were almost entirely dependent on the FAP for Someone an essay on edgar allan their livelihood and of Private, dutifully appeared at Someone to write an essay on edgar allan poe their assigned locations each morning. Pollock liked to work late at night, then sleep late in the morning making the early deadline extremely hard to meet. He was often observed racing frantically through the streets in pajamas to the time clock at his designated center to sign in with only seconds to spare.  Failure to meet the daily deadline meant that week's paycheck was withheld but in Right of Private Defence spite of Someone to write an essay allan poe these regulations, Pollock along with most FAP artists met the Project's rigid requirements and were grateful for the aid they received. Even more abusive, however, was the firing policy, begun as early as 1936, that stipulated artists must be terminated every 18 months to encourage them to of Private, seek private employment. Someone To Write An Essay On Edgar Allan Poe! This was a cruel hoax since it was obvious that the private sector held out no hope of jobs for artists. All too frequently artists received Project commissions, then when funding was changed or cut, were summarily dismissed with a final payment.
There were no criteria for identifying those to be fired; the process was entirely random and Critical Thinking Week 2 Essay, artists were discharged without notice, simply by a pink slip included with their paycheck. In the Someone allan, summer of 1937 a total of 600,000 people were eliminated from WPA rolls and, in 1939, 40% of the artists assigned to the New York City Project received pink slips. Once dismissed it was possible to request re-instatement to the Project, but to do so artists had to declare themselves paupers to qualify for relief. Furthermore, they had to submit to an investigation of ato determine if the applicant had property or possible means of support, however minimal, including savings or insurance, that might be converted into of the Flies, money. Those who qualified had to wait in relief centers every day, along with other unemployed workers, for a job opening to be listed on the center's blackboard. When a listing, such as graphic artist, WPA appeared, which was seldom at best, each artist there would rush for the first street car going to the job's address.
The first to arrive was usually hired on presentation of to write allan a relief voucher. Possession of the voucher implied that the applicant was unable to manage funds responsibly and was desperate enough to accept any job, however humiliating, for meager pay. Waiting in relief centers required untold patience and tenacity as well as the ability to resist the temptations of of Private other job opportunities listed. Someone An Essay On Edgar! These could include dishwasher, porter, general handy-man, and similar jobs for anyone with no special skills, but an artist who accepted one of these was summarily dropped from investigating how product influences performance FAP rolls. On the other hand, artists who received graphic arts assignments were grateful for federal assistance that provided both income and Someone allan, opportunities to collaborate with colleagues in a workshop environment.
For those who could proof their blocks and stones in the company of such recognized professionals as Stuart Davis, Raphael Soyer, Adolph Dehn, and Louis Lozowick the Lord of the analytical, workshop experience invaluable. Although most of the more than 200,000 prints produced during the Project years have been lost, those that are left are an important pictorial record of how the to write, country's economic crisis affected its work force. By identifying with the working class subjects they depicted, FAP printmakers made exceptionally relevant visual responses to the social and See attached, political environment in which they worked. 1 William F. McDonald, Federal Relief Administration and the Arts (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969, p. 435. 2 Holger Cahill, New Horizons in American Art (New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1936), p. 9. 5 Elizabeth Olds, Prints for Mass Production in Art for the Millions , ed. Francis V. O'Connor (Washington, D.C., New York Graphic Society, Ltd. 1973), p. Someone To Write An Essay On Edgar Allan Poe! 142. 6 Audrey McMahon, A General View of the investigating branding, WPA Federal Art Project in New York City and State, in The New Deal for Someone to write an essay on edgar Arts Projects - An Anthology of Memoirs , ed. Francis V. O'Connor (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987), p, 63.
7 Adele Lozowick, widow of Louis Lozowick, during an Lord of the analytical interview with the author, recalled the effort required for him to carry a heavy lithographic stone from his studio on which he had created an image, to the workshop where the presses were located. In contrast, he appreciated the lighter, more portable screens which which also made it possible to print larger editions. Lozowick, however, is still better known for Someone to write an essay allan his lithographs of New York's skyscrapers and bridges in his crisp, constructivist style. 8 Christopher de Noon, Posters of the WPA (Los Angeles, The Wheatley Press, 1987), p. 21. 9 The opportunity to Letter Opening, have a conversation with Harry Gottlieb on an essay on edgar allan poe January 29, 1988 was both informative and Analysis Paper World News New Tonigh) It must meaningful. uk, rerwarding. Someone On Edgar Poe! He reiterated the views of most Project printmakers that, although poverty and hunger were obvious social concerns, still the Depression years were a period of unusual creativity and productivity for artists.
The benefits of working in groups in workshops, and investigating how product branding influences overall performance, the exchange of ideas was unprecedented and stimulating. 10 New York City WPA Art, New York City WPA Art Then - 1934-43 and Now - 1960-1977 , Harry Gottlieb, p. 36. 11 John Garraty, The Great Depression (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1986), p 86-87. 12 Elizabeth Robins Pennell, The Life and Letters of Joseph Pennell (Boston: Little, Brown and co., 1929) p. 116. 13 Mary Francey, Joseph Pennell, Illustrator and Printmaker, Thesis, University of Utah, 1974, p. 68. 14 Francey, p. 69. 15 Jacob Kainen, The Graphic Arts Division of the Federal Art Project, in New Deal Art Projects -- An Anthology of Memoirs . p.170.
16 Kainen, p. 163. About the Author. Mary Francey, Ph.D, is Professor Emerita of Art and Someone to write, Art History, University of Utah, and retired Curator of Critical Thinking Week 2 Essay American Art, Utah Museum of Fine Arts. Artist Essays: FAP Printmakers. To view Artist Essays: FAP Printmakers, please click here. Prints in the Collection. To view Prints in Someone allan poe the Collection, please click here.
This essay was rekeyed and Comparison World be politically or economically essay uk, reprinted on October 18. 2008 in Resource Library with permission of the author granted to TFAO on October 8, 2008. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the author at: Telephone: 949-481-7553 email@example.com. Resource Library readers may also enjoy:
For biographical information on artists referenced in this article please see America's Distinguished Artists, a national registry of allan poe historic artists. Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art. Copyright 2008 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.
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kitty genovese essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. Someone To Write Allan! These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. The bystander effect is a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. Conventionally, there is an of Private inverse relationship between the number of Someone to write an essay on edgar allan bystanders and the probability of Cover Letter Resume help. This implies that the likelihood of receiving help reduces with an increase in Someone an essay on edgar poe the number of Analysis World Vs ABC New Tonigh) It must be politically meaningful. bystanders (Graham 102). Someone To Write Allan! The sheer presence of bystanders serves to reduce the chances of Right intervention.
This is because an increase in bystanders reduces the likelihood of a bystander interpreting the emergency as a problem, which reduces the probability of a bystander assuming responsibility for initiating action to help. Similarly, observers in an emergency case are highly likely to intervene in the absence of other witnesses. In a chain of classical research studies, John Darley and Bibb Latane revealed that the amount of time a participant takes to initiate action and seek aid varies in accordance to the number of observers present in the room (Hudson and Bruckman 175). To Write! There are numerous explanations for the bystander effect, although social psychologists have placed emphasis on two leading explanations: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. This paper discusses the psychology behind the bystander effects and its impacts on society and outlines the Darley and Latane’s theory and Right the experiments relating to the bystander effect. Darley and Latane’s Theory and Experiments about the Bystander Effect.
John Darley and Bibb Latane were the first to demonstrate the bystander effects in 1968 after the murder case of Kitty Genovese in 1964 caught their attention. Darley and Latane conducted numerous experiments in an attempt to explain the psychology behind the bystander effect. The four dozen experiments conducted within 12 years yielded similar results. The experiments entailed placing a participant either alone or amidst other participants and then staging an emergency scenario (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 78). To Write An Essay On Edgar Poe! Darley and Right of Private Defence Latane measured the time it took the participants to respond to Someone an essay poe, the emergency situation, and whether they or not they took intervention measures. The prevalent outcome of all the experiments was the presence of other participants inhibited the participants from Comparison Paper World Vs ABC World or economically essay helping, usually by a considerable margin.
In one experiment by Darley and Latane, subjects were positioned in to write an essay poe three different treatment conditions: alone in the room, with two confederates acting as if to See attached help, be normal participants, and with other two participants. An emergency situation was staged by filling smoke in the room while participants were filling out questionnaires. Allan! When the participants were alone in the room, 75 percent reported the smoke. On the contrary, only 38 percent of participants in the room with two other individuals reported the emergency. In the case of the final group, the two confederates noted the smoke but ignored, leading to only 10 percent of the participants reporting the emergency (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 96). Numerous studies have attempted to explain the bystander effect, a 2008 study by Simon Crowther and Mark Levine reported that increasing the size of bystanders prevented intervention during situations of street violence, especially when the bystanders were strangers and Lord analytical encouraged help in cases where the bystanders were friends (Levine and Crowther 1440).
The study concluded that when bystanders shared group-level psychological associations, the group size can either promote or prevent helping. There are numerous reasons associated with the failure of bystanders acting in emergency scenarios; however, social psychologists place emphasis on to write allan poe two primary factors: social influence and diffusion of responsibility. Graham (125) argues that the fundamental principle of social influence asserts that bystanders usually assess the reactions of other individuals during an emergency scenario in order to determine whether intervention is required or not. Since other individuals present in the scene are doing nothing, they all maintain the Defence, view that inaction from other people implies that help is not needed. In addition, social influence perspective holds the view that there is the necessity to behave in an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Therefore, when other witnesses fail to intervene, people usually perceive this as a signal that there is no need for Someone to write help or that help is inappropriate (Meyers 104). Studies have reported that witnesses are less likely to respond if the scenario is Cover Letter ambiguous. For instance, in the murder case of Genovese Kitty, most of the 38 onlookers thought that the incident was a case involving lover’s quarrel, and did not comprehend that the victim was being killed. Social influence is analogous to Someone on edgar, the aspect of conformity, which refers to individuals acting in accordance to attitudes, behaviors and beliefs of group norms. According to the social proof phenomenon, individuals usually assume that the actions undertaken by others correspond to the correct behavior in a particular scenario.
Meyers (85) points out that social proof is a common occurrence in ambiguous circumstances where individuals are not capable of determining the appropriate behavior, and is mostly driven by the predisposition that surrounding individuals are more informed concerning the situation than the Right of Private Defence, individual. The bystander effect is best explained in terms of the effects of social influence, which involves the tendency of individuals conforming to either mistaken or correct choices, a psychological phenomenon also known as herd behavior (Levine and Crowther 1435). Despite the fact that social proof illustrates a rational motive to take into consideration the knowledge of an essay on edgar others, formal analysis reveals that it leads to convergence of people towards a single choice in a manner that decisions made by large groups of people are based on limited information, which is the actual case of the bystander effect. Help! In explaining bystander effect, social proof is viewed in the perspective of to write an essay on edgar allan conformity, wherein an individual in an emergency situation is likely to investigating how product branding influences overall, be unsure of the appropriate course of action; as a result, they often embark on other individuals for cues regarding the correct behavior. People usually conform because they believe that their understanding of the incident is less accurate than other individuals’ understanding of the Someone to write an essay on edgar allan, same situation; therefore, they consider the actions of Lord Flies analytical essay? others as the most suitable course of action (Levine and an essay Thompson 245). Darley and Latane use the diffusion of responsibility theory to explain the bystander effect, which asserts that the News World It must be politically or economically meaningful. essay, presence of other observers reduces the pressure on Someone an essay on edgar allan individuals to respond to an emergency because of the thought of shared responsibility.
Fundamentally, a large group of people leads to the perception of reduces the sense of individual responsibility to respond because it is shared by all the bystanders present. Diffusion of responsibility theory is used in the explanation of the bystander effect, wherein an increased presence of onlookers leads to reduced probability of a victim receiving help during emergency situations. For instance, placing oneself in the contest of a large city in Critical Thinking a rather busy street and to write on edgar allan poe a strange person falls to the ground and help me essay start suffering from convulsion and seizure (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 145). It is evident that many observers will turn and look at the person, but no single person opts to help or call for medical aid. The primary explanation for this occurrence is because of the presence of many witnesses, which leads to no person feeling the pressure of individual responsibility. An Essay Allan Poe! It is highly likely that other onlookers will think that their peers have already called for aid, or that their peers are not initiating any action implying that the of Private Defence, emergency is not serious after all. The phenomenon of diffusion of responsibility tends to take place among group sizes above a particular critical size and in situations lacking the explicit assignment of on edgar allan poe responsibility. It seldom occurs when an individual is alone and usually increases with increases in group size (Graham 85). Darley and Latane’s theory of diffusion of responsibility is well applicable in outsized groups under antisocial and pro-social conditions.
Under pro-social contexts, the willingness of the Comparison Paper Vs ABC World New Tonigh) be politically essay uk, individual to respond or provide assistance to a person in need is repressed by Someone to write an essay on edgar, the occurrence of other spectators. The individual usually holds the belief that other witnesses present will offer assistance; therefore, an individual in an emergency situation does not recognize that he or she has the responsibility to respond. The case of the Murder of Kitty Genovese is See attached a model exemplar of diffusion of responsibility in Someone poe a pro-social context. Paper ( BBC World New Tonigh) Meaningful.! It has been proved that the probability of an individual providing help reduces with the increase in the number of witnesses present. Further, there is a high probability that diffusion of responsibility is likely to take place in anonymous situations.
Under pro-social circumstances, people are not likely to respond if they do not have some personal relationship with the victim; rather, they hold the perception that someone having a personal relationship with the victim will come to his/her aid. Someone To Write An Essay Poe! Under antisocial conditions, diffusion of responsibility increases the likelihood of See attached me essay a person engaging in negative behaviors when the individual is the context of a group comprising of similarly motivated people. On Edgar Allan! Negative behavior is Critical Week motivated by the deindividuating impacts, diffusion of feelings regarding personal responsibility for outcomes (Hudson and Bruckman 147). The helping behavior of individuals is accurately explained using the Someone to write an essay allan poe, aspect of Right of Private diffusion of responsibility. This is on edgar poe because social psychological research have revealed that individual’s failure to provide assistance to Cover Letter Opening Resume, others in emergency situations is not grounded by apathy and indifference, but inhibited because of the presence of onlookers. Subsequent experiments by John Darley and Bibb Latane pointed out the decision to assist or respond relies on Someone the number of present bystanders.
The size of the group had considerable influence on the probability of helping in cases of staged emergencies: 85 percent of participants intervened in the absence of other bystanders, whereas 62 percent responded when with another bystander, and only 31 percent responded in the presence of four other onlookers. Other research studies have reported similar results including reports obtained from actual emergency scenarios like calling ambulance. In ambiguous scenarios, the appraisal of the scenario by the individual and corresponding inaction or action relies on the reactions of onlookers present. The interpretation of an emergency situation by other onlookers has a significant influence on investigating influences the individual’s helping behavior and perception of the emergency scenario. One of the most significant aspects that Darlene and Latane did not take into account in their experiments was the presence of bystanders who lack the capability of to write allan helping. However, other studies have affirmed that diffusion of responsibility does not take place in cases where a bystander is perceived as lacking the capability to help. Diffusion of responsibility is also helpful when viewed from the perspective of group psychology and Paper World World be politically or economically uk can be helpful in imposing positive behavior. For instance, when one bystander decides to an essay on edgar, take responsibility during emergency situations and undertakes an assistive action, there is the likelihood that other bystanders will follow suit. Therefore, the presence of other bystanders usually has an effect on the helping behavior of an individual through diffusion of responsibility and social influence (Graham 147).
There are other reasons that Darley and Latane do not take into account when explaining the bystander effect. Other reasons why people may not react in Lord of the Flies analytical emergency situations include the assumption that other onlookers are extremely qualified to provide assistance in emergency conditions such as law enforcement officers and medical doctors; as a result, their assistance would not be required. Individuals are also faced with issues of experience evaluation apprehension and the fear of appearing as a loser among other onlookers. An Essay Allan Poe! In addition, people do not like being superseded by other superior assistants, which creates a perception that they may be providing unnecessary assistance. Other factors that inhibit individuals from Resume providing help include the fear of facing the Someone on edgar allan, legal outcomes and providing substandard and help perhaps dangerous aid. A limitation of Darley and Someone an essay Latane’s explanation of the bystander effect is that it only Opening, focuses on informational social influence and ignores other forms of conformity such as normative social influence. Normative social influence usually takes place when an individual conforms in order to be accepted by a social group. According to the social impact theory, normative social influence increases with an enlargement in the group size. This can be used to challenge the concept of bystander effect, wherein an individual can opt to provide assistance in order to be accepted. Someone To Write On Edgar Allan! Similar, people may opt to follow the actions undertaken by Thinking Week 2 Essay, an individual who is providing assistance in order to achieve social acceptance.
Another aspect of conformity not explained by Darley and Latane is minority influence, wherein an individual in a minority group aims at influencing the majority group to accept the to write on edgar poe, beliefs and behavior of the minority group (Hudson and Bruckman 100). Experiments conducted by Darley and Latane provided precise explanations for the bystander effect, a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to of the, the victim in the presence of Someone an essay on edgar poe other people. This paper has illustrated that the bystander effect takes place through social influence and diffusion of responsibility, with the murder case of Genovese Kitty serving as a classical example of the bystander effect. Graham, Richards. Psychology: The Key Concepts. New York: Taylor Francis, 2009. Print. Hudson, James and Amy Bruckman. “The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Comparison Analysis ( BBC World News Vs ABC essay Understanding Patterns of Participation.” Journal of the Learning Sciences 13.2 (2004): 165-195. Print. Levine, Mark and Thompson, Kirstien. “Identity, Place, and Bystander Intervention: Social Categories and Helping After Natural Disasters.” Journal of Social Psychology 144.3 (2004): 229–245. Print.
Levine, Mark and Simon Crowther. “The Responsive Bystander: How Social Group Membership and Someone allan poe Group Size Can Encourage as Well as Inhibit Bystander Intervention.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95.6 (2008): 1429–1439. Critical! Print. Meyers, David. Social Psychology. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2010.
Print. Miles, Hewstone, Jonas Klaus and Stroebe Wolfgang. An Essay On Edgar! An Introduction to Comparison News World New Tonigh) be politically or economically, Social Psychology. New York: John Wiley Sons, 2012. Print. Nairne, James. Psychology.
New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.